Identify the aim of the research and state the experimental / alternative and null hypothesis. The aim of this study will be to see if gender effects the rate of conformity, because Jenness’s 1932 study didn’t take gender in to account and he only used male participants, assuming that female rates or conformity were the same as male ones. This study will replicate Jenness’s 1932 study. The experimental hypothesis for this study will be that there will be a difference between participants according to thier gender. This should be evaluated by a one tailed test, using a nominal level of significance.
The null hypothesis will be that gender will not effect the rate of conformity.This should be evaluated by a two tailed test, using a nominal level of significance. Explain why a directional or a non directional experimental / alternative hypothesis has been chosen. A non directional hypothesis has ben selected because it has been predicted that there will be a difference or correlation between the two variables, but the direction of the difference has not been stated.
Identify the chosen research method and the research design chosen. An independant groups design will be used, along with experimental method. The advantages are that it can be replicated and the variables can be controlled, and that different poeple will be asked. The disadvantages are that it is artificial, and so people may not tell the truth. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen research method. The experiment could become biases for instance if a participant is good at maths and can work out the amount in the jar. Another bias is that someone who had previously taken the ‘test’, could give the correct answer to the person about to estimate the amount in the jar. Age could also bias the experiment.
Identify potential sources of bias in the investigation and any possible confounding variables. In order to limit the amount of bias only sixth formers studying in Handsworth grammar School’s lower sixth form, and were all aged between 16 and 19 years of age, took part. Also if the participants were uninterested then they may gave ‘false’ guesses, this could be combated by making the object colourful and interesting, thus making the participants more interested. Select an appropiate level of statistical significance to be reached before the experiment / alternative hypothesis will be retained.
Level of significance to be reached before the experimental/alternative hypothesis will be retained will be P<0.05 (5%). Identify any relvant ethical considerations and explain the steps to be taken to deal with these. The ethical concerns involved in this research are that no informed consent can be obtained but participants as they are being decieved, however they will be debriefed after the experiment, along with an explanation of why the experiment was undertaken in the first place. Because the participants don’t know that they are being observed they are also unaware of their right to withdraw. This deciet in essential in order for a successful experiment.
ABSTRACT Conformity This occurs when people adopt the behaviour, attititudes or values of the majority(dominant/largest group). They may yield publicly to group pressure (compliance), or privatly yield (internalism). The majority is able to influence the other peoples desire to be accepted(nomative) or the right to be right (informative). This investigation was based upon research by Jenness (1935). Participants were presented with a jam jar, which contained skittles. They weere then asked how many skittles they believed to be in the jam jar. They had to record thier answers onto a sheet which already contained false answers which were either higher (condition 1), or lower (condition 2) than the actual amount. Jenness only caried out his research on males and it was thought that female rates of conformity would be similar.
The aim of my experiment is to find out whether there is a difference between the rates of conformity between males and females. This will either prove that Jenness was right in assuming that males and females had similar rates of conformity, or disprove it. The independant variable was gender, and the estimate provided the dependant variable. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the results. Where U = 68, N1= 12, and N2 = 12. The crical value at P>0.05 = 37, so the null hypothesis was accepted, for the experimental hypothesis to be accepted U needed to be = or less than 37.