Locus of control and desire for control are sometimes seen as related (Halloran, Doumas, John, & Margolin,1999). Locus control, external control, and unknown controls that they may exert (Halloran, Doumas, John, & Margolin, 1999). Outcome contingencies associated with the traumatic event may increase the perception that control over others and over events is even more important than before (Leone & Burns, 2000). In order to regain self-efficacy in relationships and self-competency in daily activities, patients need to feel that they can exercise such control (Leone & Burns, 2000.
Trauma survivors may believe that their outcomes depend upon their actions (Leone & Burns, 2000). Also, beliefs of self-competence and self-control are associated with greater recovery and reduction of posttrauma symptomatology (Borkovec & Castonguay, 1998). Furthermore, attributions of causality that were deemed impersonal or beyond the scope of control of the individual, together with global perceptions that traumatic events can happen regardless of the position of entitlement or morality of the individual, may ameliorate the impact of stress on the individual (Borkovec & Castonguay, 1998).
Thus, patients’ beliefs of personal control and their desire for control may provide insight as to treatment and recovery (Borkovec & Castonguay, 1998; Leone & Burns, 2000). The distinction between the primary control, changing the reality, and secondary control, accepting the reality, is dependent upon global perceptions of the environment as being minimal alterable (Halliday & Graham, 2000). Secondary control allows the person to accept a belief that the environment may not change due to powerful forces maintaining the status quo (Halliday & Graham, 2000).
Accepting the absence of high primary control may allow the person protection from the negative effects and helplessness that often accompany perceptions of diminished control (Halliday & Graham, 2000). Nevertless, in some posttrauma instances, individuals’ beliefs are altered and recovery from the trauma is hindered by their perception that, regardless of either primary or secondary control, the environment will be perilous (Halliday & Graham, 2000). The permanence and development of hypnosis in therapy has elicited among clinicians a daily growth of interest in it as a support tool in psychotherapy.
It could be useful in the symptomatic majority of patients, in short or medium term changes or as a complement of therapeutic processes of different theories. The possibilities of hypnosis in the next century may be outlined in the following directions: Mind/body relationship. Studies on the mind/body relationship will proliferate. This goes in line with the worldwide tendency of self-care and help implying the pursuit of health through adequate diet and a life style away from the stresses that afflict us today.
This suggests relaxation, meditation and self-hypnosis as tools for the reinforcement of coping and survival resources against continuously aversive stressors. Psychoneuroimmunology. This new science is based on the premise that the mind can influence the immune system. Controlled studies of susceptible subjects have observed changes in lymphocytes, T-helper and killer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these defensive cells (Ruzyla-Smith, Barabasz & Warner, 1995; Zacharie, Hansen, Andersen, Jinquen and colleagues, 1994).