Kingdom Fungi includes mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, molds, and yeasts, and thousands of other organisms and microorganisms. They range from microscopic single- celled organisms, such as yeast, to gigantic multicellular organisms. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down) and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, AN EXAMPLE IS THE ANTIBIOTIC PENICILLIN, AS WELL AS IN INDUSTRY AND food preparation. For a long time fungi were classified as plants, mainly because of their similar lifestyles – both are seen to grow in soil and are sessile (permanently attached; not moving).
Plant and fungal cells both have a cell wall, while cells from the animal kingdom don’t. Fungi are thought to have diverged from the plant and ANIMAL KINGDOMS ABOUT ONE BILLION YEARS AGO.
Ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus. It is not caused by worms, and there are no worms involved, despite the name. Treatment with an antifungal cream usually works well. Ringworm is a fungal skin infection. There are many types of fungal germs (fungi) and some can infect the skin, nails, and hair. Fungal infections are also known as “tinea” or “dermatophyte infections” or “dermatophytosis”. This leaflet just deals with ringworm of the skin (sometimes called tinea corporis). Other leaflets deal with fungal infections of the scalp (scalp ringworm), foot (athlete’s foot), groin (tinea cruris) and fungal nail infection.
A small area of infected skin tends to spread outwards. It typically develops into a rounded, red, inflamed patch of skin. The outer edge is more inflamed and scaly than the paler centre. So, it often looks like a ring that becomes gradually larger – hence the name ringworm. Sometimes only one patch of infection occurs. Sometimes several patches occur over the body, particularly if you catch the infection from handling an infected animal. The rash may be mildly irritating, but sometimes it is very itchy and inflamed. The rash may vary depending on which type of fungus causes the infection. Sometimes fungal skin infections look similar to other skin rashes, such as psoriasis.
REFERENCE:PATIENT. CO. UK FUNGAL PLANT DISEASE Fungi constitute the largest number of plant pathogens and are responsible for a range of serious plant diseases. Most vegetable diseases are caused by fungi. They damage plants by killing cells and/or causing plant stress. Sources of fungal infections are infected seed, soil, crop debris, nearby crops and weeds. Fungi are spread by wind and water splash, and through the movement of contaminated soil, animals, workers, machinery, tools, seedlings and other plant material.
They enter plants through natural openings such as stomata and through wounds caused by pruning, harvesting, hail, insects, other diseases, and mechanical damage. Some of the fungi are responsible for foliar diseases – Downy mildews; Powdery mildews; and White blister are some of the highly prevalent foliar diseases. Other fungi – Clubroot; Pythium species; Fusarium species; Rhizoctonia species; Sclerotinia and Sclerotium species – are soilborne diseases. Some fungal diseases occur on a wide range of vegetables. These diseases include Anthracnose; Botrytis rots; Downy mildews; Fusarium rots; Powdery mildews; Rusts; Rhizoctonia rots; Sclerotinia rots; Sclerotium rots.
Others are specific to a particular crop group, e. g. Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) in brassicas, Leaf blight (Alternaria dauci) in carrots, and Red root complex in beans. REFERENCE: AUSVEG. COM. AU ASPERGILLOSIS INFECTION IN ANIMALS ASPERGILLOSIS IS THE NAME GIVEN TO A WIDE VARIETY OF DISEASES CAUSED by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Albeit relatively rare in humans, aspergillosis is a common and dangerous infection in birds, particularly in pet parrots. Mallards and other ducks are particularly susceptible, as they will often resort to poor food sources during bad weather.
Captive raptors, such as falcons and hawks, are susceptible to this disease if they are kept in poor conditions and especially if they are fed pigeons, which are often carriers of “asper”. It can be acute in chicks, but chronic in mature birds. Aspergillosis has been the culprit in several rapid die-offs among waterfowl. From 8 December until 14 December 2006, over 2,000 Mallards died in the Burley, Idaho area of the USA, an agricultural community approximately 150 miles southeast of Boise. Mouldy waste grain from the farmland and feedlots in the area is the suspected source. A similar aspergillosis outbreak caused by mouldy grain killed 500.
Mallards in Iowa, USA, in 2005. While there is no connection between aspergillosis and the H5N1 strain of avian influenza (commonly called “bird flu”), rapid die-offs caused by aspergillosis can spark fears of bird flu outbreaks. Laboratory analysis is the only way to distinguish bird flu from aspergillosis. In dogs, aspergillosis is an uncommon disease typically affecting only the nasal passages (nasal aspergillosis). This is much more common in dolicocephalic breeds. It can also spread to the rest of the body; this is termed disseminated aspergillosis and is rare, usually affecting individuals with underlying immune disorders.
REFERENCE: WIKIPEDIA. ORG CANDIDIASIS (YEAST INFECTION) CANDIDIASIS IS A FUNGAL INFECTION THAT CAN AFFECT AREAS SUCH AS THE SKIN,GENITALS,THROAT,MOUTH, AND BLOOD. t is caused by the overgrowth of a type of yeast called Candida, usuallyCandida albicans. This yeast is normally found in small amounts in the human body. But certain medicines and health problems can cause more yeast to grow, particularly in warm, moist body areas. This can cause uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous symptoms. SYMPTOMS ARE TREATMENT DEPEND ON WHICH PART OF THE BODY IS INFECTED. THERE ARE SEVRAL TYPES OF CANDIDIASIS:
?If it is in the mouth or throat, it is called oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, or thrush. ?If it affects the genital area, it is called a yeast infection. In women, it may be called a vulvovaginal yeast infection. ?If yeast infects the skin on a baby’s bottom area, it causes a diaper rash. ?If the infection enters your bloodstream, it is called invasive candidiasis or candidemia. REFERENCE: WEBMD MEDICAL REVIEWED BY TRACI C. JOHNSON, MG, FACOG DATE PUBLISHED: OCTOBER 29, 2014 FUNGAL EYE INFECTIONS Fungal eye infections are usually caused by an eye injury. Different types of fungi can cause fungal eye infections.
In people who have had exposures that put them at risk for fungal eye infections, the symptoms of a fungal eye infection can appear anywhere from several days to several weeks after the fungi enter the eye. The symptoms of a fungal eye infection are similar to the symptoms of other types of eye infections (such as those caused by bacteria) and can include: ?Eye pain ?Eye redness ?Blurred vision ?Sensitivity to light ?Excessive tearing ?Eye discharge In 2006, a major fungal eye infection outbreak occurred in the United States. According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
?154 cases of fungal keratitis were confirmed from June 2005 through June 2006 in 33 states. ?94 percent of these cases were among people wearing soft contact lenses. ?About 34 percent of the cases were so severe that they required a cornea transplant. ?Individuals with the eye infection were more than 20 times more likely to have used Bausch + Lomb’s ReNu With MoistureLoc contact lens solution than other lens care products. Prior to the outbreak in America, similar cases of fungal keratitis associated with ReNu with MoistureLoc were documented in Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong from late 2005 to early 2006.
Fungal eye infections related to use of the contact lens disinfecting product also were found in Europe in 2006. U. S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) technician Shirley McClinton displays Fusarium mold grown from a contaminated pair of contact lenses, still visible in this petri dish. REFERENCE: ALLABOUTVISION. COM ABOUT THE AUTHOR: GARY HEITING, OD, IS SENIOR EDITOR OF AllAboutVision. com. Dr. Heiting has more than 25 years of experience as an eye care provider, health educator and consultant to the eyewear industry. His special interests include contact lenses, nutrition and preventive vision care. Connect with Dr. Heiting via Google+.