b. Collect the most relevant evidence
c.Clinically appraise the evidence
d. Integrate all the evidence with one’s clinical expertise, patient preferences, and values in making a practice decision
e. Evaluate the practice decision or change
f. Share the outcome of EBP changes with others
Identify patients by age, gender, ethnicity, and disease or health problem.
I = Intervention of interest
Which intervention is worthwhile to use in practice (e.g., a treatment, diagnostic test, prognostic factor)?
C = Comparison of interest
What is the usual standard of care or current intervention used now in practice?
O = Outcome
What result do you wish to achieve or observe as a result of an intervention (e.g., change in patient behavior, physical finding, patient perception)?
T = Time
What amount of time is needed for an intervention to achieve an outcome (e.g., the amount of time needed to change quality of life or patient behavior)?
b. Quality improvement data
c. Existing clinical practice guidelines
d. Computerized databases
A. Clinical studies:
B. Research studies:
B. A research article contains a purpose statement, methods, or design.
A. Clinical studies:
B. Research studies:
B. In a research article, the author details the results of the study and explains whether a hypothesis is proven or how a research question is answered.
b. The steps of planning occur in an orderly fashion.
c. External factors that may influence a relationship between the phenomena that are being studied are controlled.
d. Empirical data are gathered.
e. The goal is to understand the phenomena.
c. grounded theory
a. Problem identification:
b. Study design:
c. Conducting the study:
d. Data analysis:
e. Use of the findings:
b. Design the study protocol.
c. Obtain necessary approvals, recruit subjects, and implement the study.
d. Analyze the results of the study.
e. Formulate recommendations for future research.
full and complete information about the purpose
of the study, procedures, data collection, harms,
and benefits; are capable of fully understanding the
research and implications of participation; and have
the power of free choice to voluntarily consent or
decline and understand how the researcher maintains
confidentiality or anonymity.
continuous study and improvement of the processes
of providing health care services to meet the needs
of patients and others.
evaluates and analyzes current performance to use
results to develop focused improvement actions.
1. Examining the contents of the report
2. Looking for the study only in research journals
3. Reading the abstract and introduction of the
4. Looking for the word research in the title of
if the topic of the article is similar to your PICO
question or related closely enough to provide you
with useful information.
1. The researcher’s interpretation of the study
2. A description of methods used to conduct
3. A summary of other research studies with
the same results
4. A summary of literature used to identify the
explains whether a hypothesis is supported. The
results of other studies are not presented.
low back pain is an example of:
1. Clinical guidelines
2. Quantitative nursing research
3. Outcomes management research
4. A randomized controlled trial (RCT)
statements about a plan of care for a specific set of
clinical circumstances involving a specific patient
•Using your clinical expertise and considering patients’ values and preferences ensures that you will apply the evidence in practice both safely and appropriately.
•The five steps of EBP provide a systematic approach to rational clinical decision making.
•The more focused a PICOT question is, the easier it will become to search for evidence in the scientific literature.
•The hierarchy of available evidence offers a guide to the types of literature or information that offer the best scientific evidence.
•A randomized controlled trial is the highest level of experimental research
•Expert clinicians are a rich source of evidence because they use it frequently to build their own practice and solve clinical problems.
•After critiquing all articles for a PICOT question, synthesize or combine the findings to consider the scientific rigor of the evidence and whether it has application in practice.
•When you decide to apply evidence, consider the setting and whether there is support from staff and available resources.
•Research is a systematic process that asks and answers questions that generate knowledge, which provides a scientific basis for nursing practice.
•Outcomes research is designed to assess and document the effectiveness of health care services and interventions.
•Nursing research involves two broad approaches for conducting studies: quantitative and qualitative methods.
•The research process usually consists of the following steps: identifying the problem, designing the study, conducting the study, analyzing the data, and using the findings.
•A thorough analysis of QI data leads clinicians to understand work processes and the need to change practice.