foundations of pharmacology

chemical substances that have an effect on living organisms

drugs that are used to treat or prevent diseases or other conditions

Chemical Name
The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug.

Generic Name
non-trademarked drug name; most commonly used; not capitalized

Official Name
name by which the drug is listed by the US food and drug administration (FDA)

Trademark or brand name or proprietary name
the registered name used by the manufacturer

over the counter drugs
medications that can be purchased without a physician’s prescription

illegal drugs
chemical substances that people of any age may not lawfully own, manufacture, possess, buy or sell

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)/ National Formulary (NF)
A non gov. organization that promotes the public health by establishing state of the art standards to ensure the quality of meds and other health care technologies

American Drug Index
index of all medicines available in the U.S. as well as other reference features. Useful for quick comparisons of brand names and generic names and for checking strengths and dosages published annually

American Hospital Formulary Service
Comprehensive reference book YEARLY PUBLICATIONS BY THE ASHP

Drug Interaction Facts
Tabbed binder listing drug monographs and their interactions, published by Facts and Comparisons

Drug Facts and Comparisions
A large looseleaf compendium is divided into 15 ch. arranged by organ systems

Handbook on Injectable Drugs
A collection of monographs on commercially available parenteral drugs that include concentration, stability, dosage and compatibility information

Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An interactive approach to Self – Care
Comprehensive text on OTC meds in the US

Martindal- The Complete Drug Reference
Published every 3 yrs evidence – based information on herbal medications and combination products of herbal medicines

Physicians Desk Reference
annual publication primarily for use by prescribers. contains several types of drug info identified by color coded pages, listed by generic and brand names as well as by manufacturer with colored pictures

Health On the Net Foundation
Leading organization promoting and guiding the deployment of useful and reliable online medical and health information, and its appropriate and efficient use.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
Authorizes the FDA of the u.s. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to determine the safety of drugs before marketing and to ensure that certain labeling specifications and standards in advertising are met in the marketing of products.

Controlled Substances Act
The CSA classifies five levels of drugs (controlled substances) that have potential for abuse and therefore restricts their distribution. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a division of the Justice Department was established by the CSA and enforces its regulations

classifications of controlled substances

Preclinical Research
phase of new drug development that begins with discovery, synthesis, and purification of the drug

Clinical Research
the in-depth examination of an individual or group that comes to a psychiatric, psychologist, or social worker for assistance with psychological or medical problems or disorders.

New Drug Application
application filed with FDA upon approval for general clinical use (no longer experimental). A reporting system is set for the first 6 months to track any problems

Postmarking Surveillance
Fourth phase of drug product development. consists of ongoing review of adverse effects of the new drug, as well as periodic inspections of the manufacturing facilities and products.

Health Orphans
rare diseases that pharmaceutical manufacturers were reluctant to develop products for because they were unable to recover the costs of the research involved

Birth Defect
An abnormality, present at birth, that affects the structure or function of the body and may threaten a baby’s health

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

Food and Drug Regulations
(Canda) The term offical drug pertains to any drug for which a standard is described specifically

European Pharmacopoeia
Acceptable publication accepted by international authoritativve books to be acceptable as official drugs in Canada.
(INC. United States Pharmacopeia)

Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties
Published annually by the Canadian Pharmacists Association. Provides a comprehensive list of the pharmaceutical products distributed in Canada

Patient Self- Care: Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices
Published every 4 yrs by Canada. Provides comprehensive information for health professionals and consumers about the nonprescription drug products available.

Compendium of Self- Care Products
Offers quick-glance, comparative tables of thousands of products and monographs of commonly used nonprescription products

Therapeutic Choices
Published by Canada. Handbook describing major diseases and their treatment

Food and Drugs Act, 1927
Canada. Protect the public from foreseeable risks relating to the manufacture and sale of drugs

Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
Canada… Est. the requirements for the control and sale of narcotics and substances of abuse

Nonprescription Drugs
Schedule 11 drugs that are available for sale directly from the pharmacist behind the counter. Scheule 111 are Pharmacy- only drugs. Then unscheduled drugs can be sold at any retail outlet

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