Focus on Nursing Pharmacology 6th Edition Prototypes

prednisone
Glucocorticoid
Adrenocortical Agents
Class C Preg Category
THERAP USE: Replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, Tx of allergic and inflammatory disorders.

ACTION: Suppress inflammation and normal immune response. Suppress adrenal function. Replaces endogenous cortisol in deficiency states.

ADVERSE EFFECTS:
CNS; Depression, headache, intracranial pressure, psychoses, restlesness.

EENT: cataracts, inc. intraocular pressure.

CV: hypertension

Derm: Acne, dec. would healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism (male pattern hair growth in women), petechiae(a small red or purple spot caused by bleeding into Skin.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Active untreated infections. Avoid alcohol. AVOID lactation.

T1/2: 3.5 hrs. Metabolized in liver and excreted in the urine.

fludrocortisone
Mineralocorticoids
Adrenocortical agent
Class C Preg Category
THERAP USE: Partial replacement therapy in cortical insufficiency conditions, treatment of salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome; off label use, treatment of hypotension.

ACTION: Inc. sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and increases potassium and hydrogen excretion, leading to water and sodium retention.

ADVERSE EFFECT: Frontal and occip. headaches, arthralgia, weakness, inc. blood volume, edema, hypertension, heart failure, rash, anaphylaxis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Allergy to type, heart failure, cardiac disease, pregnancy, any type of infection and high sodium intake.

T1/2: 3.5 hrs; metabolized in the liver.

levothyroxine(synthroid)
Thyroid Agents
Class A Preg Category
THERAP USE: Replacement therapy in hypothyroidism, pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone suppression in treating euthyroid goiters and in the management of thyroid cancer; thyrotoxicosis in conjunction with other therapy; myxedema coma.

ACTION: Inc metabolic rate of tissues, increasing O2 consumption, respiration and heart rate; rate of fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism; and growth maturation.

ADVERSE EFFECT: Tremors, headache, nervousness, palpitations, tachycardia, allergic skin reactions, loss of hair in first few months of therapy in children, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hyperthyroidism, recent myocardial infarction (MI), hypersensitivity.
Cautions: CVD, Sev renal insuff.

T1/2: 6-7 days.

methimazole
Antithyroid agents
(Thioamides)
Class D preg Category
THERAP USE: Tx of sign and symptoms of hyperthyroidsm.

ACTION: Inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones.

ADVERSE EFFECT:
CNS: Drowsiness, headache, vertigo.
GI: HEPATOTOXICITY, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of taste, parotitis.
Derm: rash, skin discoloration, urticaria.
Hemat: AGRANULOCYTOSIS, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.
Ms: arthralgia.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Lactation.
Caution with dec bone marrow. Patients over 40 for agranulocytosis. Thyroid problems may occur in fetus.

T1/2: 3-5hr.

strong iodine solution
Antithyroid agents
(Thiomides)
Class D preg Category
THERAP USE: Tx of signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidsm.

ACTION: Inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Decrease vascularity to thyroid. Decreases thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine following radiation emergencies.

ADVERSE EFFECT:
Rash, hypothyroidism, goiter, swelling of the salivary glands, iodism (metallic taste, burning mouth and throat, sore teeth and gums, head cold symptoms, stomch upset, diarrhea), allergic reactions.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pregnancy and lactation, pulmonary edema, impaired renal function.
Caution, TB, bronchitis, CVD.

T1/2: unknown.

calcitrol
Parathyroid agents
Antihypocalcemic agents
THERAP USE: Management of hypocalcemia in patients on chronic renal dialysis, management of hypocalcemia associated with hypoparathyroidism.

ACTION: Vit D compound that regulates absorption of calcium and phosphate from the small intestine, mineral resorption in bone.

ADVERSE EFFECT:

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

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