Focus on Nursing Pharmacology 6th Edition Prototypes

Adrenocortical Agents
Class C Preg Category
THERAP USE: Replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, Tx of allergic and inflammatory disorders.

ACTION: Suppress inflammation and normal immune response. Suppress adrenal function. Replaces endogenous cortisol in deficiency states.

CNS; Depression, headache, intracranial pressure, psychoses, restlesness.

EENT: cataracts, inc. intraocular pressure.

CV: hypertension

Derm: Acne, dec. would healing, ecchymoses, fragility, hirsutism (male pattern hair growth in women), petechiae(a small red or purple spot caused by bleeding into Skin.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Active untreated infections. Avoid alcohol. AVOID lactation.

T1/2: 3.5 hrs. Metabolized in liver and excreted in the urine.

Adrenocortical agent
Class C Preg Category
THERAP USE: Partial replacement therapy in cortical insufficiency conditions, treatment of salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome; off label use, treatment of hypotension.

ACTION: Inc. sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and increases potassium and hydrogen excretion, leading to water and sodium retention.

ADVERSE EFFECT: Frontal and occip. headaches, arthralgia, weakness, inc. blood volume, edema, hypertension, heart failure, rash, anaphylaxis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Allergy to type, heart failure, cardiac disease, pregnancy, any type of infection and high sodium intake.

T1/2: 3.5 hrs; metabolized in the liver.

Thyroid Agents
Class A Preg Category
THERAP USE: Replacement therapy in hypothyroidism, pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone suppression in treating euthyroid goiters and in the management of thyroid cancer; thyrotoxicosis in conjunction with other therapy; myxedema coma.

ACTION: Inc metabolic rate of tissues, increasing O2 consumption, respiration and heart rate; rate of fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism; and growth maturation.

ADVERSE EFFECT: Tremors, headache, nervousness, palpitations, tachycardia, allergic skin reactions, loss of hair in first few months of therapy in children, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hyperthyroidism, recent myocardial infarction (MI), hypersensitivity.
Cautions: CVD, Sev renal insuff.

T1/2: 6-7 days.

Antithyroid agents
Class D preg Category
THERAP USE: Tx of sign and symptoms of hyperthyroidsm.

ACTION: Inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones.

CNS: Drowsiness, headache, vertigo.
GI: HEPATOTOXICITY, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of taste, parotitis.
Derm: rash, skin discoloration, urticaria.
Hemat: AGRANULOCYTOSIS, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.
Ms: arthralgia.

Caution with dec bone marrow. Patients over 40 for agranulocytosis. Thyroid problems may occur in fetus.

T1/2: 3-5hr.

strong iodine solution
Antithyroid agents
Class D preg Category
THERAP USE: Tx of signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidsm.

ACTION: Inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Decrease vascularity to thyroid. Decreases thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine following radiation emergencies.

Rash, hypothyroidism, goiter, swelling of the salivary glands, iodism (metallic taste, burning mouth and throat, sore teeth and gums, head cold symptoms, stomch upset, diarrhea), allergic reactions.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pregnancy and lactation, pulmonary edema, impaired renal function.
Caution, TB, bronchitis, CVD.

T1/2: unknown.

Parathyroid agents
Antihypocalcemic agents
THERAP USE: Management of hypocalcemia in patients on chronic renal dialysis, management of hypocalcemia associated with hypoparathyroidism.

ACTION: Vit D compound that regulates absorption of calcium and phosphate from the small intestine, mineral resorption in bone.



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