Fitness and training are the foundation for most sports in this modern age, the key fitness and training components are aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, speed, strength, power, body composition, agility, balance, co-ordination, and reaction time. I will now explain what each of these components mean. I have chosen a 100m runner, and a striker in football to give examples what these mean in different sports. Aerobic Endurance Aerobic endurance is the ability to perform over a sustained period of time.
Aerobic is ‘with’ oxygen which means you breathe whilst exerting your energy as opposed to anaerobic which is ‘without’ oxygen, which means you don’t breathe for example during a sprint. 100m Runner – This athlete does not need this attribute unless training, as he is required to exert 100% throughout. Striker – The striker needs this attribute to perform constant sprinting runs behind the defence for the whole 90mins (plus stoppage time). Muscular Endurance Muscular endurance is the ability to perform against resistance for a sustained period.
100m Runner – Sprinting requires a 100% quick burst of pace, and this requires good muscular endurance. Striker – A striker needs good muscular endurance to effectively last 90 or even 120 minutes on the field. Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to move into different positions for example a gymnast would have excellent flexibility. 100m Runner – A runner needs good leg flexibility for a long, powerful stride. Striker – When a striker swings his leg to get a shot on goal he needs good flexibility to get that extra power.
Speed Speed is the pace of time to perform a sequence of movements; this is used in nearly every sport. 100m Runner – This is the most important attribute for a sprinter, he must be explosive and aggressive from start to finish. Striker – Speed is important to sprint onto balls passed through and closing down the defence. Strength Strength is quite simply force against a resistance. 100m Runner – You need all over body strength as you use every muscle whilst running. More specifically arm and leg drive.
Striker – A striker needs this to hold the ball up, keep the ball and win headers in the air. Power Power is the combination of strength and speed. 100m Runner – A 100m runner needs explosive power to get a good solid start out of the blocks. Striker – A striker needs power to make explosive strong runs with the ball whilst under pressure and getting a powerful shot off at goal. Body Composition Body Composition is the size, shape and structure in which the body is manufactured. 100m Runner – This athlete needs between a mesomorph and ectomorph for slim-line movement.
Striker – A striker needs to be a mesomorph to hold up the ball and bring a strong powerful force to the attack. Agility Agility is the pace or time in which you can perform an action. 100m Runner – A 100m runner needs an agile arm and leg drive to produce a constant speed for the entire 100m. Striker – This athlete needs good agility in his legs and his feet to fool players and beat them. Balance Balance is equilibrium, or the equality of distribution. 100m Runner – This athlete needs a good centre balance to stay in their lane at a high speed.
Striker – This athlete needs good balance to control awkward passes and get a strike on goal when under pressure from a defender. Co-ordination Co-ordination is to be able to perform a number of tasks in a logical order or at the same time. 100m Runner – This athlete needs this to keep is feet correct and in a well timed pattern. Striker – This athlete needs good foot-eye co-ordination to bring the ball under control and judge the ball through the air. Reaction Time Reaction time is a stimulus.