First Responder Exam Review

CPR consists of 4 main parts:
A=
B=
C=
D=
Airway
Breathing
Chest Compressions
Defibrillation

What is the compression?
Pumps the blood in the heart to the rest of body

What causes gastric inflation?
if you breath too quickly or with too much force

What is the compression ventilation ratio for 1 rescuer adult CPR?
30:2

What ages are considered children?
12 months- pueberty

What ages are considered infants?
birth- 12 months

What ages are considered adults?
pueberty and up

What is the compression-ventilation for 2 rescuer adult CPR?
30:2

What is the compression-ventilation for 2 rescuer child CPR?
15:2

The earlier the defibrillation occurs the ______ the survival rate
higher

AED stands for___
Automated External Defibrillator

Use the _______ hands technique for infant 2 rescuers
2-thumb- encircling

To relieve chocking in the infant give
A combination of back slaps and chest thrusts

What should you do if a patient had agonal breaths
Activate emergency response system, check pulse, start CPR

Where should you assess a pulse in an adult?
Carotid artery

Where should you assess a pulse in an infant
Brachial Pulse

The chain of human resources and services linked together to provide continuous emergency care from the prehospital scene, through transport, and arrival at the medical facility
EMS(Emergency Medical Service System)

A member of the EMS System who provide pre-arrival instructions to callers, there by helping to initiate life-saving care before EMS personnel arrive
Emergency Medical Dispatcher

A physician who assumes the ultimate responsibility for medical oversight of the patient care aspects of the EMS systems
Medical Director

A specific set of steps developed by the EMS system’s medical director
Protocols

Specific instructions developed by the medical director, which authorize the Emergency Medical Responder, EMT, or Paramedic to provide care for specific medical conditions or injuries
standing orders

Standing orders and protocol developed by an EMS system that authorize rescuers to perform particular skills in certain situations without actually speaking to the MD
Off-line medical direction

Orders to perform a skill or administer care from the on-duty physician, given to the rescuer in person, by radio, or by phone
On-line Medical Direction

To protect yourself from infectious diseases, typically you will need no more than _____
gloves

The prehospital assessment and basic care for the sick or injured patient
Emergency care

Give several components of the EMS
first reponders, paramedics, the dispature, police man, fire man

The patient provides verbal permission to provide care
Expressed consent

An unresponsive patient is assumed to want help
Implied Consent

A failure to provide the expected standard of care
Negligence

A series of laws designed to protect care providers who deliver care in good faith to the level of there training and with out compensation
Good Samaritan Law

Give the stages of grief and describe
Denial- patient denys he is dying and puts off having to deal with situation
Anger- angry about situation, vented on family members
Bargaining- patient believes bargaining will postpone the inevitable
Depression- patient becomes sad, depressed, and mourns things he has not done
Acceptance- works through all stages and finally is able to accept death

An emotionally draining, nerve raking time caused by an overload of work/drama
stress

an emergency that involves more than one victim and over whelms the 1st responding units
multiple-casualty

A method of infection control based on the presumption that all body fluids are infectious, practice of using specific barriers to minimize contact with a patient’s blood and body fluids
BSI- Body Substances

Equipment such as eyewear, mask, gloves, gown, turnout gear, and helmet, which protect the rescuers from infection and or from exposure to hazardous materials and the dangers of rescue operations
PPE- personal protective equipment

Give a blood-borne pathogen
Hepatitis B, HIV

A lung infection that can be transmitted by airborne aerosplized droplets
TB(Tuberculosis)

A disease that inflames and damages the liver, very infectious, life-long illness/ death
Hepatitis

A situation or part of the situation that causes stress
stressor

Common Causes of stress:
Multi casualty incidents, death of coworker, child injury, violence, abuse, neglect

An in-depth broad plan designed to help rescue personnel cope with the stress resulting from a highly stressful incident
Critical Incident Stress Management

The study of body structure
Anatomy

The standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy
Anatomical Position

the patient is lying face up
supine

The patient is lying face down
Prone

the patient is lying on its side
Lateral Recumbent

the front of the body
Anterior

the back of the back of the body or body part
Posterior

An imaginary vertical line used to divide the body into right and left
Midline

Towards the midline of the body
medial

To the side, away from the midline of the body
lateral

towards the head
Superior

away from the head
Inferior

closer to the torso
proximal

farther away from the torso
distal

The muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity is the
diaphragm

A body structure used to help find the position of the heart in the body for CPR is the
Zyfoyd Process

The organ found in the pelvic cavity is the
bladder, large intestine, reproductive organs

Responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Respiratory System

carry well oxygenated blood and other nutrients to the body’s calls, and assist with the removal of wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells
Circulatory System

Provides structure, support, and protection for the body and internal organs
Muscular System

Control movement, interprets sensations, regulate body activities and generate memory and thought
Nervous System

Digest and absorb food and remove certain waste
Digestive System

Removes chemical waste from the blood and help balance water and salt levels in the blood
Urinary System

Produces hormones needed for sexual reproduction
Reproductive System

Protects the body from disease causing organisms with white blood cells, microorganisms-attacking cells, anti producing cells and anti bodies
Immune System

The proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and to minimize injury
Body Mechanics

List the rules to follow in a lift
Position your feet properly
Lift with your legs and avoid putting weight to either side
minimize twisting
keep weight as close to your body as possible
when going down stairs use a chair or commertial stair chair instead of wheeled stretcher

A patient move that is carried out quickly when the scene is hazardous care of the patient requires immediate repositioning or you must reach another patient who needs life saving care
Emergency Move

the preferred choice when the situation is not urgent the patient is stable and you have adequate time and personnel for a move
Non Emergency Move

The position in which a patient with no suspected spine injuries may be placed usually on the left side
Recovery Position

Also known as backboards used for patients who are found lying down or standing that have a suspected spine injury
Spine Board

Used to help immobilize and remove patients found in a seated position in a vehicle
Vest-type extraction device

Typically used in more rural settings to move the patient from one level of the ground to another or rough terrain
basket stretcher

Normal Respiration of an adult
12-20 breaths

Sample
Signs and Symptoms
Allergies
Medications
pertinant past medical history
Last oral intake
Events leading to the illness or injusry

AVPU
Alert
Verbel
Pain
Unresponsive

an abstructive indication of illness or injury that can be seem heard smelled of felt by another person
Sign

Is a subjective indication of illness or injury that cannot be observed by another person or felt and reported by the patient
Symptom

During which of the major part of the patient assessment is the patient assessed for life threatening problems?
Initial Assignment

What is blood pressure?
One out of 5 signs referred to as vital signs. the measurement of blood against the walls of your arteries

the heart’s contractions faze the first beating or tapping sound heard
systole

when the pressure in the arteries fall, the beating or tapping sound becomes dull or soft
Diastole

What is the rule for estimating normal range of blood pressure?
100+ their age

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