First Aid Chapter 5

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When a person becomes suddenly ill. Common Signals include
Changes in levels of consciousness, breathing problems, signals of a possible heart attack (including persistent chest pain), signals of stroke, loss of vision/blurred vision, signals of shock (including rapid breathing, changes in skin appearance and cool, pale or ashen skin), sweating, persistent abdominal pain or pressure, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, seizures

When to call 911
Unconsciousness or altered levels of consciousness, breathing problems, no breathing, chest pain (discomfort or pressure lasting more than 3-5 minutes that goes away and comes back or that radiates to the shoulder, arm, jaw, neck, stomach or back), persisted abdominal pain, severe external bleeding, vomiting blood or passing blood, severe burns, suspected poisoning, seizures, stroke, suspected or obvious injuries to the head near or spine, painful swollen deformed areas (indicates possible broken bone) or an open fracture

Care for sudden illnesses by following the same general guidelines as you would for any emergency
do no further harm, check the scene for safety, and then check the person. First care for life threatening conditions such as unconsciousness, trouble breathing, severe bleeding, severe chest pain, or signals of stroke. Help the person rest comfortably. Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated. Reassure the person because he or she may be anxious. Watch for changes in consciousness and breathing. If the person is conscious ask if he or she has any medical condition or is taking any medication. Do not give the person anything o eat or drink unless he or she is fully conscious, is able to swallow and does not show any signals of a stroke. If the person is vomits and is unconscious and lying down position the person on his side and clear the mouth. If you know the person is having a severe allergic reaction or a diabetic emergency, assist the person with his or her prescribed medication.

Fainting (Specific sudden illnesses)
One common signal of sudden illness is a loss of consciousness, such as when a person faints. Fainting occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the brain for a short period of time. This condition results from a widening of the blood vessels in the body. This causes blood to drain away from the brain to the rest of the body. Fainting is usually not harmful.

Symptoms of fainting
Often becomes pale, begins to sweat, and then loses consciousness and collapses.

When to call 911 (fainting)
When in doubt about the condition of a person who has fainted. It is always appropriate to seek medical care for fainting.

What to do until help arrives (fainting)
Lower the person to the ground or any flat surface and on his back. Loosen any tight clothing. Check the person is breathing. Do not give them food or drink. If the person vomits, roll him to the side.

Seizures
When the normal functions of the brain are disrupted by injury, disease, fever, infection, etc a seizure may occur. Is a result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain and causes temporary, involuntary changes in body movement, function, sensation, awareness or behavior.

Epilepsy
Is a chronic seizure condition. Almost 3 million Americans have some form of epilepsy. Usually can be controlled with medication.

Febrile Seizures
Young children and infants may be at risk for these. Seizures brought on by a rapid increase in body temperature. They are most common in children younger than 5. Caused by infections of the ear, throat, or digestive system.

Signals of seizures
A blank stare, a period of distorted sensation during which the person is unable to respond, uncontrolled muscular contractions called convulsion which last several minutes.

Aura
A person with epilepsy may experience this before the seizure occurs. It is an unusual sensation or feeling such as a visual hallucination; strange sound, taste or smell; or an urgent need to get to safety.

Febrile seizure signals
sudden rise in body temperature, changes in consciousness, rhythmic jerking of the head and limbs, loss of bladder or bowel control, confusion, drowsiness, crying out, becoming rigid, holding breath, upward rolling of the eyes.

When to call 911 (seizures)
The seizure lasts more than 5 minutes, the person has multiple seizures with no signs of slowing down, the person appears to be injured or fails to regain consciousness after seizures, the cause of the seizure is unknown, the person is pregnant, the person has diabetes, the person is a young child, the seizure takes place in water, the person is elderly and could have suffered a stroke, this is the person’s first seizure.

What to do until help arrives (seizures)
Do not try to stop the seizures, prevent injury, protect the person’s airway and make sure that the airway is open after the seizure has ended. Do not hold or restrain the person. Make sure the environment is safe. If the child or infant has a febrile seizure it is important to immediately cool the body by giving a sponge bath with lukewarm water. Check to see if the person was injured. Be comforting and reassuring. Stay on the scene with the person until he or she is fully conscious and aware of the surroundings.

Stroke
Third leading killer and leading cause of long term disability. Also called a brain attack and is caused when blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off or when there is bleeding in the brain. Can cause permanent damage but sometimes it can be stopped or reversed. Usually caused by blockage in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Once the blood flow is cut that part of the brain starts to suffocate. Blockages can be caused by blood clots.

Mini stroke
When a person has the signals of a stroke which then completely go away. Someone who has a mini stroke is at very high risk of having a full stroke within the next 2 days.

Risk factors
High blood pressure (number one risk factor), diabetes, cigarette smoking, and diet

What to look for (stroke)
Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg (usually on one side of the body). Facial droop or drooling. Trouble with speech. Loss of vision or disturbed vision in one or both eyes. Sudden severe headaches. Severed altered mental status. Loss of balance or coordination. Incontinence.

FAST
Face, Arm, Speech, Time

When to call 911 (Stroke)
Call immediately if someone is having a stroke or if the person had a mini stroke. Note the time of onset signals.

What to do until help arrives (Stroke)
Note the time that the signals start. If the person is unconscious make sure there is an open airway and care for life threatening conditions.

Diabetic Emergencies
The inability of the body to change sugar (glucose) from food into energy. This process is regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. People who have diabetes may become suddenly ill because there is too much or too little sugar in their blood.

Type 1 diabetes
This type of diabetes occurs when the body produces little or no insulin. Must inject insulin into their bodies daily and are insulin dependent.

Warning signs of type 1 diabetes
Frequent urination, increased hunger and thirst, unexpected weight loss, irritability, and weakness and fatigue.

Type II diabetes
the body makes insulin but not enough to meet the body’s needs or the body becomes resistant to the insulin produced. Is a progressive disease, people with this type of diabetes eventually may need to use insulin

Warning signs of type 2 diabetes
any signals of type 1 diabetes, frequent infections especially involving the skin gums and bladder. Blurred vision. Numbness in the legs feet and fingers. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal. Itching.

Hyperglycemia
too much sugar in the blood. May not have taken enough insulin or the person is reacting adversely to a large meal or a meal high carbs.

Hypoglycemia
Too little sugar in the blood. Person may have taken too much insulin, eaten too little food.

What to look for in a diabetic emergency
changes in the level of consciousness, changes in mood, rapid breathing and pulse, feeling and looking ill, dizziness and headache, and confusion.

When to call 911 (diabetic emergency)
The person is unconscious or about to lose consciousness. The person is conscious but unable to swallow. The person does not feel better within 5 minutes after taking some form of sugar. You cannot find any form of sugar immediately.

Allergic Reaction
Caused by an over activity of the immune system against specific antigens (foreign substances). People with allergies are sensitive to these antigens. When their immune system overreacts to the antigens it is called an allergic reaction.

Antigens that cause allergic reactions
Bee or insect venom, antibiotics, pollen, animal dander, latex, sulfa drugs, certain foods

What to look for (allergic reactions)
hives, itching, rash, weakness, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, dizziness, trouble breathing. Low blood pressure may accompany these reactions.

When to call 911 (allergic reactions)
Has trouble breathing, complains of the throat tightening, explains that he or she is subject to severe allergic reactions, is unconscious

What to do until help arrives (allergic reactions)
monitor the person’s breathing, care for life threatening conditions, check a conscious person to determine the substance (antigen) involved, the route of exposure to the antigen, and the effects of the exposure. Assist the person using epinephrine. Assist the person with taking an antihistamine. Document any changes in the person’s condition over time.

Signals of poisoning
nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, chest or abdominal pain, trouble breathing, sweating, changes in consciousness, seizures, headache, dizziness, weakness, irregular pupil size, burning or tearing eyes, abnormal skin color, burns around the lips tongue or on the skin.

Try to find out (poisoning)
the type of poison, the quantity taken, when it was taken, how much the person weighs

When to call 911 (poisoning)
For life threatening conditions (such as if a person is unconscious or is not breathing or if a change in consciousness occurs)

Call the National Poison Control Center if
If the person is conscious and alert

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Automated external defibrillator (AED) A computerized defibrillator programmed to recognize lethal heart rhythms and deliver an electrical shock to …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy The most common medical emergency for the diabetic is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Which is NOT a cause …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy aura right before a seizure where there is a smell, sound, or general feeling causes of seizure hypoxia, stroke, …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Seizures are an uncontrolled condition that electrical activity in the brain produces convulsion. These convulsions may be minor physical …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of varying forms and degrees that has the common characteristic of hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy what is diabetes ? Diabetes is a disease were people cannot lower their blood sugar naturally do to issues …

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