First Aid Assignment 1

List and briefly explain each component of the response chain (as discussed in class).
Recognizing that an emergency exists: unusual noises, sights, odors, appearances or behaviors.
Deciding to act:once you identified an emergency you must decide how you will act.
Activating the EMS system by calling 9-1-1 or the local emergency number:talk to the EMD and tell them about the crisis and they will tell you pre-arrival medical instructions.
Giving care until medical help arrives and takes over:follow the instructions provided by the EMD.

Briefly describe the Good Samaritan Law.
a law that exempts from legal liability persons, sometimes only physicians, who give reasonable aid to strangers in grave physical distress.

Why might people decide to not help in an emergency situation?
Fear of doing something wrong, getting sued, catching a disease, assuming someone else will take action and unsure of when to call 9-11.

What unusual appearance or behavior might indicate someone is in need of help?
Confusion, trouble breathing, clutching the chest or throat, unconsciousness, someone doubled over in pain, slurred speech and sweating for no reason.

What are some precautions against disease transmission?
Hand washing, using protective barriers to prevent exposure to blood and body fluids when giving care to the injured. One must wash their hands correctly and use personal protective equipment including gloves and breathing barriers.

What four things/conditions must be met in order for any disease to be spread (transmission)?
A pathogen is present, there is sufficient quantity of the pathogen present to cause disease, the pathogen passes through the correct entry site, and a person is susceptible to the pathogen.

Briefly describe a medical alert tag?
An emblem or tag worn on a bracelet, neck chain, or on the clothing bearing a message that the wearer has an important medical condition that might require immediate attention.

List and briefly explain the three emergency action steps
Check :the scene of the accident and to see if the person is responsive and okay.
Call:9-1-1 and make an emergency report.
Care: for the person until the medical responders arrive.

What is the difference between consent and implied consent?
Consent is when the individual knows exactly what they are getting themselves into. Implied consent is when the behaviors of the individual give the consent.

What should you tell the operator when calling to report an emergency?
Precise location, city, street, number, floor, apartment number and the current condition of the victim.

List the immediate dangers when considering moving a victim.
Trip may aggravate the victim and make the condition worse, when the person has or may develop a life threatening condition and being unsure of the nature of the injury or illness.

Explain when to use the four common types of emergency moves.
blanket drag:can be used when a person is in an emergency situation and equipment is limited can be used with both conscious and unconscious victims.
ankle drag:to move a person who is too large to carry in any other way .
two person seat carry:requires a second responder, put one arm behind the person’s thighs and back. This move should be used when the victim is conscious and not seriously injured.
pack strap carry:can be used with both conscious and unconscious victims with an unconscious person a second responder is needed.
clothes drag:can be used with both conscious and unconscious victims suspected of having a head, neck or spinal injury.
walking assist:you would place the person’s arms across your shoulders and hold it in place with one hand, your other hand would go around the person’s waist. This move should be used while the victim is conscious but has a hard time walking.

In order for the body to work properly which systems must work well together?
The muscular, skeletal and nervous system.

List the names of the arteries that are most checked to determine a pulse (adult, child and infant).
Radial and carotid

List one major structure in each of the body systems listed in question 13.
muscular: cardiac muscle system
skeletal:skull and spinal column
nervous:the brain

Name the five major cavities of the body.
Cranial cavity,Vertebral canal,Thoracic cavity,Abdominal cavity and the Pelvic cavity .

How can you check to see if the victim is receiving your two rescue breaths?
Tilt the head back and put your ear to the victim’s mouth and look for body activity.

What is the difference between finding a victim when you are alone, or finding a victim with other people around? Describe “Call First”, “Care First”.
Call First: when there is an unconscious adult or adolescent age 12 or older, witnessed a sudden collapse of a child, an unconscious child or infant known to have heart(cardiac) problems.
Care First:an unconscious person younger than 12 years of age who did not see collapse, any person who had a drowning accident.

What must you always attempt to support while turning/moving the victim who is face down?
You will do this in order for the victim to receive oxygen and to prevent the victim from choking.

What are the Red Cross definitions of an adult, child, and infant?
Adult: defined as someone about age 12 or older.
Child: someone between the ages 1-12.
Infant: considered to be someone between the ages of 1-8 or weighing less than 55 pounds.

What are the steps for checking a conscious adult victim and what questions should you ask? What are the steps for a child or infant?
Adult: interviewing the person and bystanders and checking the person from head to toe
Child: ask parent or guardian to help calm the child or infant, communicate and explain clearly to the guardian what you are going to do.

What is the term for opening a person’s airway?

What does checking for signs of life mean?
Look to see if the chest is moving. Listen for breaths
Feel on your face the respiration from nose to mouth.

What are the ABC’s?
A is for airway, B is for breathing and C is for circulation.

What questions does the book say you should ask when interviewing the victim and bystanders?
What happened, do you have any allergies, do you feel pain or discomfort anywhere, do you have any medical conditions, or are you taking any medication?

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