Although my 40m sprint and 20m shuttle run results were below average, my other results were much more positive. I am above average for girls in standing long jump, sit-ups, sit and reach and grip strength. I was unable to participate in the 400m sprint because of illness. Considering these factors, I would consider my present state of fitness moderately high. 2. Standing Long Jump 1. What are the main muscles being tested? The muscles being tested would predominately be the legs muscles. In particular, the quadriceps and calf muscle grops.
2. Name 2 actions from a sport that this test would be highly specific to 2 actions in a sport that this exercise relates to are: Long Jump or Triple Jump, as the athlete jumps as far as he/she can from a specific point High Jump, the same muscles are used to push off the ground at the start of a jump. 3. What type of muscular contraction is occurring in the jump? When the jump is made the muscular contraction occurring is an isotonic muscle contraction.
4. What energy system was in use? As the jumping is a fast and explosive movement, it would be using the Creatine Phosphate energy system. 5. What other test could be used to evaluate explosive power? An alternative test could be kicking a ball from a stationary position and then measuring the distance the ball goes. This will use the explosive movement of the leg like the original test. 3. 40 Metre Sprint 1. What energy system(s) are being used in this test? The start of a 40m sprint is explosive and a reaction to a stimulus. Therefore, it uses the creatine phosphate system. As it is a short distance, it will continue to use the Creatine Phosphate system for up to 10 seconds.
2. What type of muscle fibres would be desirable in this test? Fast twitch (or white) fibres would be used in this test. 3. Why these type of fibres? Fast twitch fibres are used in activities that require fast contraction and maximal force. They also store a high level of creatine phosphate, which makes them very suitable for this test. 4. Approximately how long would it take to replace half the ATP used in this test? To fully restore the ATP supplies after the Creatine Phosphate energy system is used, it takes approximately 3-5 minutes. In this case, to replace half the ATP used, it will take no more then 3-4 minutes.
5. How long would it take to replace all the ATP used up in this test? As said in the previous question, to replace all ATP it would take 3 – 5 minutes. 6. Explain why it is not possible to sprint at maximum pace for longer than approximately 10 seconds, but it is possible to sprint at maximum for 10 seconds, rest for 3 minutes and then sprint again for 10 seconds and repeat this cycle many times. The creatine phosphate system is only the predominant energy source for up to 10 seconds in any exercise.
It therefore is only used in fast, explosive movement such as a sprint. Because of its time restriction, it makes it not possible for an athlete to sprint any longer then 10 seconds. However, because ATP and phosphocreatine supples are restored between 3-5 minutes after the creatine phosphate system is used, it would make it possible to sprint again after rest. This can be done many times over, as the reproduction of these supplies never slows downs.
4. Sit-Ups 1. What fitness component is this laboratory testing? This laboratory tests the fitness component of local muscular endurance. 2. What specific muscle group is it testing? Sit-ups mostly test the abdominal area of the body. It can also apply contractions in the back. 3. What energy system is being used in this test? The sit-ups test requires the use of both the Creatine Phosphate and Anaerobic Glycolysis systems. For the first 10 seconds where exercise first starts and the body reacts most explosively, the creatine phosphate system is predominant. For the majority of the minute of exercise, the anaerobic glycolysis system is at its peak. This energy system is used in activity with speed, muscular power and local muscular endurance that is relevant to the sit-ups test.
4. Explain why you cannot keep on doing sit-ups at your maximum rate. The creatine phosphate system is the energy source used in maximal efforts but only lasts for 10 seconds. Because of this, you cannot keep on doing sit-ups at your maximum rate for longer then 10 seconds without a rest to build up more of this energy source. 5. Sit and Reach Test 1. What 2 areas of the body is this testing the flexibility of? The sit and reach laboratory tests the flexibility of the lower back along with the hamstrings. 2. Compare the average score of boys and girls in this test. What physiological reason is there for these results? The results of this test show that boys on average are less flexible then girls. This is due to hormonal differences that restrict a male’s ability to be flexible.
3. Give four examples of sporting skills which require a high level of flexibility and say what areas of the body are being flexed when performing each skill. Gymnastic events such as the Roman rings, uneven bars, parallel bars, floor routines and the beam. This needs flexibility in most areas of the body including the back, hip joints and shoulder joints. * Goal keeping in hockey requires the flexion of the arms as the reach out to stop the hockey puck. Competitive aerobics also requires all round flexibility as it uses most body parts to produce spectacular movement.
Defensive shuffle in netball and basketball requires more flexion in the hip and shoulder joints to produce a more extended block of the ball. 6. 400 Mtre Sprint 1. What energy system is used predominately in this event a) during the first 10 seconds b) for the remainder of the run? a) During the first 10 seconds the creatine phosphate system is applied as the most predominant energy system b) For the rest of the run, the anaerobic glycolysis system will be most predominant. However, if the run outgoes 1 minute the aerobic system may take control.
2. Describe your feelings at the end of the run (muscles, breathing, etc) and explain in physiology terms why you felt this way. Use the terms O2 debt (alactacid and lactacid), stroke volume, heart rate etc. I didn’t participate in this event, although I believe it would make the body feel tired and exhausted. Fatigue in muscles is due to a build up of lactic acid during anaerobic glycolysis. During the race tidal volume, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac out put would have increased due to the extreme intensity and duration of the exercise. When finished, all four measures would slowly decrease to normal levels.
3.Why does light exercise (eg walking around or slow jogging) after this run, make u recover quicker? After the run, you should walk or slow jog to help your body recover quicker to increase the levels of oxygen and blood circulation in your body. This helps get rid of lactic acid build up in the muscles. 7. Muscular Strength 1. What muscle group was tested? This tested the strength of our handgrip. It therefore was using the flexors and extensors of the wrist and fingers.
2. Why are isometric strength machines able to produce greater gains in muscular strength? The isometric strength machine is easy to perform and reliable in providing an index of muscular strength because it has a reasonably high correlation with total body strength. 3. “Males will always be superior in strength events to females” Discuss this statement. Males generally do have a higher muscular strength than females. This is also because of hormonal differences. But, if a trained female, with a high muscular strength was to run against an average male of the same age, the female would have a chance of winning.