Exam #1, Chapters 1-6

Suppose a person is prescribed an opioid medication (similar to heroin) to treat a painful injury. After the injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. Based on this information alone, what term would you use to describe her drug use?
Drug misuse

Among college students, fewer than 1/4 have ever tried:
Hallucinogens

Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of the group to take corrective action when it occurs is:
Deviant drug use

Some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. This process is referred to as:
Reinforcement

One personality variable that has been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence is:
High impulsiveness

Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees:
Are much more likely to drink alcohol & much less likely to use tobacco

Factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as:
Risk factors

One very consistent finding is that students who report ____________ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug.
Having more involvement with region

One of the most important protective factors for drug use is:
Believing that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school.

When we examine changes over the years in the percentage of high school seniors who say they have smoked marijuana, we find a clever inverse (mirror image) relationship to:
Perceived risk of harm in using marijuana

What drug has been clearly linked to crime and violence?
Alcohol

Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder:
Have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder

As views of substance dependance have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be:
Psychological dependence, based on reinforcement

The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of:
Psychological dependence

In comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account:
That many more people use marijuana than use cocaine.

From highest to lowest, the number of mentions in the 2009 DAWN emergency department database:
Cocaine, prescription opioids, heroin, antidepressants

The Drug Abuse Warning Network
Monitors drug-related medical emergencies.

Which is an example of chronic psychological toxicity?
Lung cancer from smoking

When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called:
Behavioral toxicity

Since the 1990’s HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users have been reduced from about 50% to about 10%. According to the text, what factor led to this decrease?
Syringe exchange programs

A economic study of U.S. efforts to eradicate coca fields in South America indicated:
That even if we produce massive disruption of one country’s supply, market forces would replace the supply within two years.

Compared to urine samples, hair samples:
Can detect drugs for up to 90 days.

According to current federal law, a find of up to $10,000 and loss of all federal (including student loans and grants) can result from conviction:
For possession of small amounts of controlled substances

It is estimated that ____% of the illegal drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year.
10-15%

Substances with high abuse potential and have currently accepted medical use are listed in:
Schedule II

According t to the text, which of the following most accurately describes the recent drug laws in Portugal?
Possession for personal use of all drugs is decriminalized.

Before the FDA approves an IND for human testing of a new drug:
The drug has been tested in at least tow species of nonhuman animals.

Important changes to the regulation of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration occurred in 1938 and 1962, largely in response to:
The Elixir Sulfanilamide poisonings and birth defects from Thalidomide.

The 1906 U.S. Law that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated or mis-branded foods and the drug was called the:
Pure Food and Drugs Act

When the Pure Food and Drugs Act was first passed, drugs were legally required to be:
Pure and accurately labeled

The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called:
Positron emission tomography (PET)

Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on:
The type of receptor

Which of the following is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory?
The neurotransmitter GABA

Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called:
endorphins

Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with:
Serotonin Pathways

Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the:
Brain stem

Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to:
Dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway

The ____________ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation and sexual behavior.
Hypothalamus

The disease ___________ results from a loss of myelin wrappings.
Multiple sclerosis

Which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some types of psychotic behavior and in the reinforcing properties of various drugs?
Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

Which of these is given it’s own classification category, due to it’s complex effects at different doses?
Marijuana

The threshold on a dose-response curve is the:
Lowest dose at which there is an observable effect of the drug.

The potency of a drug is defined in terms of:
The amount required to produce an effect.

The story of the Michigan police officer who ate marijuana-laced brownies and then called 911, is a good illustration of which basic psychopharmacology fact?
Different routes of administration can produce markedly different drug effects.

The time-course of a drug’s action depends on:
How the drug is administered, how rapidly the drug is absorbed, and how the drug is eliminated from the body.

The blood-brain barrier:
Prevents many drugs from entering the brain.

Some drugs may act on all types of neurons by:
Altering the electrical potential across the cell membrane.

If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of:
Drug disposition tolerance

Which of the following would be a reason for a drug company NOT to pursue expensive clinical trials of a new drug?
The therapeutic index is less than 1.

Which route of administration will produced the fastest onset of effects?
Inhalation

The ability of stimulants to improve mental performance:
Depends on the complexity of the task, and the dose.

Although National Survey on Drug Use and Health Data indicates greater prevalence of illicit drug use among white Americans, black Americans represented more than 80% of those arrested for:
Violation of federal crack cocaine laws

One of the more disturbing side effects of treating ADHD with amphetamines or methyylphenidate (Ritalin) is:
Decreased height and weight gains in children.

The effect of amphetamines on weight control:
Is real, but small and limited in duration.

What was NOT an early medical use for amphetamine first studied in the 1930’s?
Treating anxiety

Cocaine use during pregnancy now appears to be associated with:
No consistent negative associations with physical growth, test scores or language in children.

Cocaetheylene
Is formed in the body when cocaine and alcohol are used together.

What is cocaine still used for medically?
It is used as a local anesthetic for nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal surgeries.

Cocaine’s effects in the brain:
Results from blocking serotonin, dopamine and nor epinephrine re uptake.

They most common way cocaine is used recreationly is by:
Insufflation (snorting)

A drug that is unlawful to posses.
Illicit drug

Drug use in greater than necessary amounts
Drug misuse

Top three gateway drugs:
1. Beer, wine
2. Hard liquor, cigarettes
3. Marijuana

Presence of a withdrawal symptom.
Physical dependence

Toxicity resulting from behavioral effects of a drug.
Behavioral toxicity

Why is physiological toxicity a problem?
Social systems such as hospitals and insurance cover the cost from individual harm.

Top-three DAWN rankings of drug-related emergency
1. Alcohol in combination
2. Cocaine
3. Prescription opioids

Top-three DAWN rankings of drug-related deaths
1. Prescription opioids
2. Alcohol in combination
3. Benzodiazepines

Very high dependence potential:
Heroin (IV), crack cocaine

High dependence potential:
Morphine (injected), Opium (smoked)

Moderate/high dependence potential:
Cocaine powder (snorted), tobacco cigarettes, PCP (smoked)

Moderate dependence potential:
Diazepam (Valium), alcohol, amphetamines (oral)

Moderate/low dependence potential:
Caffeine, MDMA (Ecstasy), Marijuana

Low dependence potential:
Ketamine

Very low dependence potential:
LSD, mescaline, psilocybin

Dealers and dispensers must pay a tax on opium and cocaine, register annually and use special forms ie. dentists, physicians and veterinary surgeons.
Harrison Act of 1914

Subcortical brain structures controlling muscle tone.
Basal Ganglia

Structure that prevents many drugs from entering the brain.
Blood-brain barrier

Fight or flight
Sympathetic of the ANS

Digestion, slows the heart rate, and relaxation.
Parasympathetic of the ANS

Neurotransmitter that may be important for regulating walking and appetite.
Nor epinephrine

Neurotransmitters:
Action potentials, amino acids, peptides and monamines

The electrical signal transmitted along the axon when a neuron fires.
Action potentials

How are hallucinogenic drugs and serotonin related?
The drugs influence serotonin pathways.

How do psychoactive drugs work?
The molecular structure of the drug is similar to the molecular structure of the neurotransmitter, thus the drugs interact with similar chemicals as the original neurotransmitters would have.

Parkinson’s Disease
A movement disorder involving damage to and/or loss of dopamine neurons along the nigrostrital dopamine pathway. Symptoms include tremors, rigidity of limbs, postural instability, and difficulty initiating movement.

MRI
Magnets determine the amount of hydrogen at different locations.

PET
Radioactive chemicals are injected into the bloodstream, scanned and then various amounts of the chemical in different regions of the body and brain.

fMRI
Real time about blood flow and mood or perform behavioral or cognitive tasks. Measures BOLD (Blood, oxygen level depend)

Usually more safe and convenient, yet absorption rate can be unpredictable and there is a slow onset of drug effects.
Oral

Liver metabolism avoided, rapid drug effects and reliable and convenient. However, potential for nasal necrosis.
Insufflation

Liver metabolism avoided and rapid drug effects. However, suitable for irritation substances, an increased risk of adverse effects and potential for collapsed veins.
Intravenous injection

Drug absorption can be slowed and constant providing a sustained drug effect, yet potential for pain and necrosis from irritation substances.
Subcutaneous injection

Drug effects are more rapid than subcutaneous route, yet it is suitable for irritating substances, drug absorption can be unpredictable or unusual in very obese and emaciated individuals.
Intramuscular injection

Liver metabolism is avoided and rapid drug effects, however, increased risk of direct adverse effects and potential for lung toxicity.
Smoked

Stimulants
Cocaine, amphetamine and caffeine

Hallucinogens
Psilocybin, LSD and Ayahuasca

Depressants
Alcohol, benzodiazepines, other sedatives, sleeping pills and inhalants

Opioids
Morphine, codeine, heroin and ocycodone

Psychotheraputics
Cymbalta, Abilify

Theraputic index
Ratio of LD50 to ED50

Dosage difference between an acceptable level of effectiveness and the lowest toxic dose.
Safety margin

Unintended effects that accompany therapeutic effects
Side effects

How is cocaine used medically?
Local anesthesia, depression and morphine dependence

Cocapaste
Mixed with tobacco and smoked

Cocaine hydrochloride
Most common form, snorted and injected.

Freebase
Heated and vapors inhaled

Rock
Freebase is mixed with water and baking soda and smoked

Uses of amphetamines
Treatment of depression, weight control, narcolepsy and ADHD

The usual recreational dose of GHB when taken alone is about: 1-5 grams The CNS depressants include various prescription drugs referred to as: Sedative-hypnotics WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

However, these factors are only vital in the initial stages of drug use. These factors take on less significance as drug addiction sets in (Addiction Science Network, 2000). With continued drug use, a person is exposed to “potent pharmacological effects” …

Attitudes, family characteristics, and other factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as risk factors A drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as an illicit drug WE WILL …

Substance abuse is today’s predominantly insidious health and social dilemmas. Substance abuse connotes to the detrimental or death-defying utilization of psychoactive substances, in addition to alcohol and illicit drugs and the use of these substances use can lead to dependence …

in addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as glia which of these is not one of the four important regions found in every neuron? glia WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Chapter 11 Chapter 11 The disorder that is characterized by eating binges followed by forced vomiting is called: bulimia nervosa WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Characteristics …

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