Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek for true nucleus) have linear structures of DNA called chromosomes; these are found in the cell’s nucleus, which is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. The DNA of eukaryotic chromosomes is consistently associated with chromosomal proteins called histones and nonhistones. Eukaryotes also have a mitotic apparatus (various cellular structures that participate in a type of nuclear division called mitosis) and a number of organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and sometimes chloroplasts.
Moreover, eukaryotic organisms include algae, protozoans, fungi, higher plants, and animals (Thomas, 2004). The eukaryotic cell is typically larger and structurally more complex than the prokaryotic cell. Thesis Statement: This study intends to scrutinize and discuss the details of the eukaryotic cell and all its parts and how they function together. II. Discussion A. Flagella and Cilia Many types of eukaryotic cells have projections that are used for cellular locomotion or for moving substances along the surface of the cell.
These projections contain cytoplasm and are enclosed by the plasma membrane. If the projections are few and are long in relation to the size of the cell, they are called flagella. If the projections are numerous and short, resembling hairs, they are called cilia. Both flagella and cilia consist of nine pairs of microtubules arranged in a ring, plus two single microtubules in the center of the ring (Henrichsen, 2003).
Euglenoid algae use a flagellum for locomotion, whereas protozoans, such as Paramecium, use cilia for locomotion. A prokaryotic flagellum rotates, but a eukaryotic flagellum moves in a wavelike manner. To help keep foreign material out of the lungs, ciliated cells of the human respiratory system move the material along the surface of the cells in the bronchial tubes and trachea toward the throat and mouth.