ES 223 (Evens)

Robert Smalls
A former slave with an exemplary record in the Union Army. He was nominated and selected to South Carolina’s 1864 Republican national convention.

The Fourteenth Amendment
Guaranteed rights as citizens (*Equal Protection under the law). Specifically, it guaranteed citizenship to every person born in the U.S., made each person a citizen of the state, protected them against power of state governments, due process of law, and threatened to deprive states of representation in Congress. It was passed by Republicans to secure the legal rights of freedmen. It fundamentally changed the Constitution.

Former Confederate state holding the most blacks in office during Reconstruction?
South Carolina

How did black leaders feel about segregation in American society?
Black leaders were determined to open public facilities to all people, in the process revealing deep divisions between themselves and white Republicans.

The Enforcement Act
Response from Congress to terrorism in the South. Act of 1870 and 1871. The 1870 act outlawed disguises and masks to protect the civil rights of citizens. The 1871 act (known as Ku Klux Klan act) made it a federal offense to interfere with an individuals right to vote, hold office, serve on a jury, or enjoy equal protection of the law.

To what party did most black people remain loyal in the post-Reconstruction south?

Jim Crow
Originated with a minstrel show routine called “Jump Jim Crow” that a white performer, Thomas “Daddy” Rice, created in the 1830s and 1840s. Rice blackened his face with charcoal and ridiculed black people. His character later came to be synonymous with segregation and discrimination.

The Grandfather Clause
Louisiana’s new twist to disfranchisement in 1898. This stipulated that only men who had been eligible to vote before 1867 – or whose father or grandfather had been eligible before that year – would be qualified to vote. Virtually no black men were eligible to vote before that year (most had just emerged from slavery), so this law immediately disfranchised almost all black voters.

Racial Etiquette
Black and white people did not shake hands. Black people did not directly into white peoples’ eyes. Black people stared at the ground to address white people. Black men removed their hats, white men did not. Black people went to the back door. Black men or boys never could look at women. Black women could not try on clothing in white stores. White people did not use titles of respect. White customers were always served first.

What did many people think was an appropriate education for black students?
Rural schools for black children rarely operated for more than 30 weeks a year. Most black students could not attend school on a regular basis because of the demands of fieldwork. Schools were often dilapidated shacks, lacking plumbing, electricity, books, and teaching materials. Some black people and many white people regarded education for black youngsters as a pointless exercise. Benjamin Mays’s father put little value in education.

Red versus Black: The Buffalo Soldiers
Most black men in the army after the Civil War spent their time in the West, fighting Native Americans. The Plains Indians who fiercely resisted U.S. forces were so impressed with the performance of their black adversaries that they called them “_______”, due to the hair of the black men compared to the shaggy coat of the buffalo. Black troops considered it a term of respect and began to use it themselves.

Madam C.J. Walker
Entrepreneur. Born Sarah Breedlove in 1867, married at 14, widowed by 20. Struggled to make ends meet, but eventually developed a formula to nourish and enrich the hair of black women. Sold it door to door, expanded, became millionaire.

NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
As the Niagara Movement expired, the _____ came to life. In its early years, the _____ was a militant organization dedicated to racial justice. White leaders dominated it and white contributors largely financed it. Won its firest major legal victory in 195 when the Supreme Court overturned Oklahoma’s grandfather clause in Guinn v. United States. Aggressive campaign for civil and political rights.

What provoked the formation of the National Federation of Afro-American Women?
In 1895, a New Era Club member, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, became enraged by a white journalist James W. Jack, who vilified black women as “prostitutes, thieves, and liars”, who were “altogether without character.” Josephine then issued a call to “Let Us Confer Together” that drew 104 black women to a meeting in Boston. The result was the formation, which soon included 36 clubs in 12 states.

Lt. Col. Charles Young
1889 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point who served in Cuba, Phillippines, Haiti, and Mexico. He was eligible to lead black and white troops in WWI, but several white soldiers complained that they did not want to take orders from a black man. Despite ______ protests, he was forced to reture after claims of high blood pressure.

The Great Migration
Where? Midwest or Northeastern locales (few went West). Why migrate? Southern agricultural disasters in 1910s, labor shortages during WWI, blatant Jim Crow laws, bleak culture of rural South.

Sophisticated racism:
ideology of social Darwinism, “scholarly” studies. Raw bigotry also manifested itself in various aspects of popular culture and the KKK.

Zora Neale Hurston
Born in Alabama and raised in all-black town of Eatonville, Florida. She attended Morgan State University and Howard University and graduated from Barnard College. She was associated with the Harlem Renaissance and was an exception because she came from an isolated, rural southern community. She was a writer and an artist and major figure. She labeled the white people who took an interest in Harlem "Negrotarians" and she labeled her black literary colleagues "******ati".

Andrew “Rube” Foster
Father of black baseball in the 20th century America. He was a pitcher from Texis combining athletic skills with mental dexterity. In 1911 he founded the Chicago American Giants. Argued for the establishment of a Negro baseball league, he was also a catalyst in the formation of the eight-team Negro National League and became its president and secretary. Black baseball thrived in the 1920s due to_____ personality and dedication. After his death and the Depression, the league system was severely disrupted.

* “Bronx Slave Market”
c.) An area in New York where white women could very cheaply obtain day labor from black women.

Smith v. Allwright
NAACP’s greatest legal victory in 1944. The Supreme Court issued a ruling that ended the white primary altogether (which denied blacks a vote in the Democratic primary election of the south/mainly Texas, which was more important than the general elections).

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Designed to protect farmers by giving them subsidies to limit production and thereby stabilize prices during the first New Deal. Theory of _____ was that creating scarcity would increase agricultural prices (farmers would be paid to grow less). The program helped many African Americans, mainly because it pumped billions of dollars into an economic sector on which over 4.5 million black people relied for their livelihood. Problems:____ benefits often administered unfairly/corruptly by county agents & planters who excluded black people. White landlords would pocket checks meant to be distributed to black tenants.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Created to employ the unemployed. Harry Hopkins was its head.___ put thousands of men and women to work building new roads, hospitals, city halls, courthouses, and schools. The____ was administered far more fairly than were the first New Deal programs (it was in the second wave). By 1939 it provided assistance to one million black families on a far more equitable basis than ever. It also had 4 arts programs – the Federal Art Project, the Federal Music project, the Federal Theater Project, and the Federal Writers Project.

“Scottsboro Boys”
Case in Alabama where nine black youths who had caught a ride on a freight train were tried, convicted, and sentenced to death for allegedly raping two white women. 1931. They had gotten into a fight with white hobos. Two of the white hobos were women afraid of being arrested, so they accused the men of assaulting them. The white court-appointed attorney for the boys came to court drunk each day. They never stood a chance. Medical exams of the women proved that neither had been raped, yet all 9 men (except the 13-year old) were sentenced to death. The case brought attention to the Communist Party, because the Communist Party’s International Labor Defense (ILD) rushed to the aid of the boys and appealed the case to the Supreme Court.

What effect did the Great Depression have on black music?
Because of segregation and discrimination, the black community developed its own institutions to address their needs, which were the arts. Jazz, rock and roll, and classical music. Through schools, churches, and labor/media, students found opportunities to study classical music. Black people were marketed for music, using their art to entertain their oppressor. Black music reflected community’s values, tensions, and anxieties, and strategies of resistance to white domination. BEBOP was the revolution in jazz. Black musicians were tired of swing’s predictability, and began to improvise in jazz clubs. The Great Depression caused a slump in record sales.

Amos ‘n Andy
This was a show that reinforced racial stereotypes. It was one of the only shows depicting black people. Critics complained the show confirmed white notions of superiority.

Hattie McDaniel
Starred in Gone with the wind, another film that cemented the role of black Americans as servants in the American consciousness. First African American to win an Oscar. Black actors formed the Fair Play Committee (FPC) to lobby the white-dominated movie industry for more substantial roles, to get rid of dialect speech, and to ban the term ****** from the screen. Hattie often portrayed maids, but indicated she would rather act as a maid and make $700 a week than be a made and make $7 a week.

Oscar Micheaux
An enterprising black filmmaker who made films aimed primarily at the black public, a group that Hollywood often ignored. Black men and women in ______ films were often educated, cultured, and prosperous. He tried to transform Hollywood without changing it.

Katherine Dunham
Choreographer, anthropologist, and writer. Founded the Negro Dance Group in Chicago, started it because black students had no place to study dance. She was the first. The group had a sexual vitality mixed with primitive and folk dances. She also protested segregation and fought racism.

What was true about the story of Native Son?
Richard Wright, 1940. Critics hailed it as “the new American tragedy”. Bigger Thomas, protagonist, has a fear of whites. He murders Mary and Bessie (white woman he drives for his job & girlfriend). In the books he tells that Negroes were far from patient or forgiving, that they were scarred by fear, that they hated every moment of their suppression even when seeming most acquiescent, and that they hated the cultivated white men. Bigger realized he was a product of his experiences in the ghetto.

Jesse Owens
Born in Alabama on a sharecropping farm. Grew up at Ohio and went to Ohio State University. African American and Olympic athlete in the 1936 Olympicis in Berlin. Did the relay, 100M, 200M, and more. He was first Olympian to ever win four gold medals.

Billie Holiday
Used her art to challenge the oppression of black people. Popularly known as “Lady Day”, began singing at 15. “Strange Fruit”, which she performed in 1929, became her signature piece. It was an antilynching anthem. Perhaps the greatest jazz singer ever recorded.

Scientific Racism
America was “under siege” as Europeans and black migrants flooded American cities. Considered “inferior” peoples. America was committing race suicide because whites were being diluted by inferior peoples of eastern and southern Europe (while they were all from North).

The Birth of a Nation
was a book and movie in 1915 by D.W. Griffith. Claimed to depict the Reconstruction in S. Carolina authentically. NAACP was enraged. The KKK (which disappeared after the Reconstruction) was resurrected a few months after the ________ was released. The film was enormously popular, depicting the KKK as saving the state from ignorant and immoral negroes. It ignited racial violence.

Types of Racism
Scientific and Sophisticated racism

Big-band jazz During the Great Depression, which style dominated popular music? Big-band jazz Ragtime Tin Pan Alley French mélodie changing Many early twentieth-century composers exploited _____ meters. changing constant compound nonmetric WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

what economic problems lurked beneath the general prosperity of the 1920s? agricultural overproduction, uneven distribution of wealth, underconsumption, and growing credit what happened on October 29, 1929? more than 16 million shares were sold as the stock market crashed. This …

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The Constitution of United States of America provides protection to women through many laws and amendments. For example, the nineteenth amendment states, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the …

During the 1920s and 1930s, the African-American style of music we now know as blues was known as… Race music During the 1920s and 1930s, the style of music we now know as country and westerner was called? Hillbilly music …

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