Erotomania – delusion

De Clerambault’s Syndrome, also called erotomania, is a psychological condition in which the sufferer is under the delusion that a certain person is in love with him or her. Typically, the object of this delusion is of a higher social class than the sufferer and is merely an acquaintance – at the most – in reality. To the person with de Clerambault’s syndrome, everything that the object of affection does takes on a special significance that it does not really have.

De Clerambault’s syndrome is named after Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault, a French psychiatrist who wrote a comprehensive paper on the condition in 1921. [pic][pic][pic]De Clerambault’s syndrome has been recognized in some form since long before Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault published his paper, although there was no standard term for it. Ancient authors, including Hippocrates and Plutarch, describe cases that today would probably be diagnosed as de Clerambault’s syndrome. Psychiatrist Jacques Ferrand is credited with the first mention of the syndrome in psychiatric literature, in 1623.

The concept of the condition has changed throughout the centuries, as it was originally likened to illness caused by unrequited love, and only relatively recently came to be understood as a delusional belief that another person is making romantic advances. There have been many famous cases of de Clerambault’s syndrome, most of which manifested themselves through stalking behavior. The object of many of these cases was a celebrity of some sort, either in the realm of politics or entertainment.

One of the most well-known cases affected John Hinckley, Jr. , who shot President Ronald Reagan in 1981 in an attempt to impress actress Jodie Foster, who he believed wanted a sign of his devotion. De Clerambault’s syndrome has also often been the subject of fiction. Nikolai Gogol’s classic story, “Diary of a Madman” (1835), describes a descent into insanity that begins with a case of de Clerambault’s syndrome. Ian McEwan’s novel Enduring Love (1997), adapted to film in 2004, tells the story of a homosexual case of the condition.

De Clerambault’s syndrome is also the subject of the 2002 French film He Loves Me… He Loves Me Not, starring Audrey Tautou of Amelie fame. Erotomania atau biasa dikenal dengan sebutan de Clerambault’s syndrome merupakan suatu bentuk gangguan kepribadian dimana para penderitanya memiliki keyakinan yang merupakan waham bahwasannya ada seseorang, biasanya yang memiliki status sosial lebih tinggi (selebritis, bintang rock, orang terkenal, wanita sosialita, bos, dll), memendam perasaan cinta kepada si penderita, atau mungkin memiliki suatu bentuk hubungan intim.

Gangguan kepribadian ini rata-rata penderitanya adalah kaum pria. Pertama kali ditelaah oleh psikiater asal perancis yang bernama Gaetan Gatian Clerambault, yang menyusun sebuah makalah yang membahas tentang gangguan kepribadian macam ini pada tahun 1921. walau referensi awal yang sejenis dengan gangguan ini telah ada dalam tulisan Hipokrates, Erasistratus, Plutark, dan Galen.

Dalam dunia psikiatri sendiri referensi sejenis ini telah ada pertama kali dalam tahun 1623 dalam sebuah risalah berjudul Maladie d’amour ou melancolie erotique yang ditulis oleh Jacques Ferrand, dan juga disebut sebagai “old maid’s psychosis”, “erotic mania” dan “erotic self-referent delusions” sampai kemasa sekarang dimana disebut sebagai bentuk dari Erotomania atau de Clerambault’s Syndrome. Inti utama dari bentuk sindrom ini adalah si penderita memiliki suatu waham atau delusi keyakinan bahwa ada orang lain, yang biasanya memiliki status sosial yang lebih tinggi, secara sembunyi-sembunyi memendam perasaan cinta kepadanya.

Para penderita selalu yakin bahwa subjek dari delusi mereka secara rahasia menyatakan cinta mereka dengan isyarat halus seperti bahasa tubuh, pengaturan perabot rumah, atau dengan cara lain yang kemungkinan tidaklah mungkin (jika yang menjadi sasaran adalah seorang public figure maka akan diartikan secara salah oleh penderita, terhadap sesuatu yang tertulis dalam media massa tentang orang tersebut). Sering kali orang yang menjadi objek dalam delusi, hanya memiliki sedikit sekali hubungan atau bahkan tidak berhubungan sama sekali dengan sang penderita.

Walau demikian sang penderita tetap percaya bahwa sang objek-lah yang memulai semua hubungan khayal itu. Delusi Erotomania sering ditemukan dalam sebuah gejala awal dari sebuah gangguan delusional atau dalam konteks Skizofrenia. Terkadang subjek yang berada dalam delusi tidaklah pernah ada dalam dunia nyata, nemun yang lebih sering terjadi, subjek adalah publik figur seperti penyanyi terkenal, aktor, aktris, politikus, selebritis dll.

Erotomania juga disebut-sebut sebagai suatu penyebab perilaku Stalking yaitu suatu bentuk perilaku memperhatikan orang lain tanpa sepengetahuan orang yang diperhatikan, lalu perlahan melakukan suatu upaya pendekatan yang bersifat mengganggu, biasanya dengan obsesi bahwa korban adalah orang yang perlu ditolong atau bahkan dimusnahkan. Selain itu Erotomania juga disebut sebagai penyebab dari bentuk suatu tindakan yang mengganggu orang lain.

Percobaan pembunuhan terhadap Mantan Presiden Amerika Serikat, Ronald Reagan oleh John Hinckley, Jr.dilaporkan telah diakibatkan oleh erotomania yang diderita Hinckley, yang merasa bahwa artis Jodie Foster akan membeberkan kepada publik bahwa ia cinta kepadanya setelah ia membunuh sang presiden. Hinckley sendiri terbebas dari jeratan hukum karena didiagnosa memiliki gangguan jiwa (skizofrenia). Berikut adalah daftar beberapa artis yang menjadi korban dari gangguan kepribadian ini: Linda Ronstadt David Letterman Madonna Barbara Mandrell Ronald Reagan Steven Spielberg.

Erotomania is a type of delusion in which the affected person believes that another person, usually a stranger, is in love with him or her. The illness often occurs during psychosis, especially in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania. [1] In one case, erotomania was reported in a patient who had undergone surgery for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. [2] During an erotomanic psychosis, the patient believes that a “secret admirer” is declaring his or her affection to the patient, often by special glances, signals, telepathy, or messages through the media.

Usually the patient then returns the perceived affection by means of letters, phone calls, gifts, and visits to the unwitting recipient. [2] The term erotomania is often confused with “obsessive love”, obsession with unrequited love, or hypersexuality (see nymphomania). Obsessive love is not erotomania by definition. Erotomania is also called de Clerambault’s syndrome, after the French psychiatrist Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault (1872–1934), who published a comprehensive review paper on the subject (Les Psychoses Passionelles) in 1921. |Contents | |1 History |.

|2 Presentation | |3 Historical examples | |4 In popular culture | |5 See also | |6 Notes | |7 References | [pic][edit] History Early references to the condition can be found in the work of Hippocrates, Erasistratus, Plutarch and Galen. In the psychiatric literature it was first referred to in 1623 in a treatise by Jacques Ferrand (Maladie d’amour ou Melancolie erotique) and has been variously called “old maid’s psychosis”, “erotic paranoia” and “erotic self-referent delusions” until the common usage of the terms erotomania and de Clerambault’s syndrome. G. E.

Berrios and N. Kennedy outlined in ‘Erotomania: a conceptual history’ (2002)[3] several periods of history through which the concept of erotomania has changed considerably: • Classical times – early eighteenth century: General disease caused by unrequited love • Early eighteenth – beginning nineteenth century: Practice of excess physical love (akin to nymphomania or satyriasis) • Early nineteenth century – beginning twentieth century: Unrequited love as a form of mental disease • Early twentieth century – present: Delusional belief of “being loved by someone else”.

[edit] Presentation The core symptom of the disorder is that the sufferer holds an unshakable belief that another person is secretly in love with him or her. In some cases, the sufferer may believe several people at once are “secret admirers. ” The sufferer may also experience other types of delusions concurrently with erotomania, such as delusions of reference, wherein the perceived admirer secretly communicates his or her love by subtle methods such as body posture, arrangement of household objects, and other seemingly innocuous acts (or, if the person is a public figure, through clues in the media).

Erotomanic delusions are typically found as the primary symptom of a delusional disorder or in the context of schizophrenia and may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. [edit] Historical examples |[pic] |This section does not cite any references or sources. | | |Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and | | |removed. (February 2010) |.

The assassination attempt of Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley, Jr.was reported to have been driven by an erotomanic delusion that the death of the president would cause actress Jodie Foster to become infatuated with him. Late night TV entertainer David Letterman and retired astronaut Story Musgrave were both stalked by Margaret Mary Ray. [edit] In popular culture Examples of de Clerambault’s syndrome (erotomania) in fiction include Ian McEwan’s novel Enduring Love,[4] and the French films Anna M. (2007) and Laetitia Colombani’s A la folie… pas du tout (2002), starring Audrey Tautou.

The band Dream Theater has a song titled “Erotomania”, which is the first of a three part suite titled A Mind Beside Itself. The condition of erotomania formed the basis of the plot for the episodes “Somebody’s Watching” and “Broken Mirror” of the television series Criminal Minds. Erotomania also formed the basis of the plot of the 2006 film Borat. Throughout the film, Borat travels from Khazakstan in an attempt to find his “love” pahmeela anderson. At the end of the film, when Borat finds pahmeela, he attempts to kidnap her in a large burlap bag [5].

This obsession with the desired individual continues long after that individual has asserted that he/she is not interested in pursuing a romantic relationship with the afflicted. Consequently, erotomaniacs tend to stalk their victims. It has been postulated that those who stalk suffer from a basic fault in their capacity to have relationships with others. (Lipson et al. , 1998). Though brought to light with the Tarasoff case, Erotomania continues to be considerably new in the literature and consequently little research has been done to suggest any consistent hypothesis as to causality.

Characteristic of the erotomaniac (generally across the board) are the following: irrationality, a tendancy toward impulsive actions, obsessiveness, paranoia, psychotic tendancies. Typically the erotomaniac shares certain behavioral characteristics consistent with that of a Borderline. The erotomaniac tends to begin with simple, subtle expressions of affection to reach the object of his/her desire which later spirals out of control and can lead to expressions of anger, rage, frusteration and violence when such gestures go ignored and the victims continues to assert lack of interest.

Strangely the erotomaniac fails altogether to see the victim’s lack of interest. The erotomaniac attributes lack of positive response to a litany of things. In the case of my stalker, Louise attributed her ex-husband (my boyfriend) taking a restraining order out against her to a belief that somehow I was behind the scenes manipulating him to do so in order to keep him from “recognizing his love for her” and “going back to her”. Louise also wrote constant letters saying she knew I “had to be pregnant” because she didn’t know why else he wouldn’t be returning her calls and answering her threatening letters.

Finally, the erotomaniac is psychotic and no longer in reality. Any reaction from the victim can be construed as a signal of approval. Returning to the case of my stalker, Louise believed the act of my boyfriend taking a restraining order out against her was somehow indicative of encouragement to continue to call and visit him and so she did continue, persisting even after countless arraignments, community service and jail time. • Erotomania Erotomania is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that another person, usually of a higher social status, is in love with them.

Erotomania is also called de Clerambault’s syndrome, after the French psychiatrist Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault who published a comprehensive review paper on the subject (Les Psychoses Passionelles) in 1942. History Early references to the condition can be found in the work of Hippocrates, Erasistratus, Plutarch and Galen. In the psychiatric literature it was first referred to in 1623 in a treatise by Jacques Ferrand (Maladie d’Amour ou Melancolie Erotique) and has been variously called “old maid’s psychosis”, “erotic paranoia” and “erotic self-referent delusions” until the common usage of the terms erotomania and de Clerambault’s syndrome.

Berrios and Kadinksy (see references) have outlined several periods of history through which the concept of  Contemporary syndrome The core of the syndrome is that the affected person has a delusional belief that another person, usually of higher social status, is secretly in love with them. The sufferer may also believe that the subject of their delusion secretly communicates their love by subtle methods such as body posture, arrangement of household objects and other seemingly innocuous acts. The object of the delusion usually has little or no contact with the delusional person, who often believes that the object initiated the fictional relationship.

Occasionally the subject of the delusion may not actually exist, although more commonly subjects are media figures such as pop stars, actors and politicians. Erotomania has been cited as one cause for stalking or harassment campaigns. The assassination attempt of Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley, Jr. was reported to have been driven by an erotomanic delusion that the death of the president would cause actress Jodie Foster to publicly declare her love for Hinckley. Author and Booker Prize winner, Ian McEwan based the novel Enduring Love around the theme of a science writer who is harassed by an erotomanically deluded person.

The book claims to be based on a real case report which is included in the appendix of the book, although this case report is, in reality, also fictional. The term erotomania is sometimes used in a less specific clinical sense meaning excessive pursuit of or preoccupation with love or sex. Erotomanic delusions are typically found as the primary symptom of delusional disorder, or in the context of schizophrenia.

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