Epidemiology Paper Requirements Include the following in your assignment: 1. Description of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). 2. Describe the determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease. 3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.
(The textbook describes each element of the epidemiologic triangle). 4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, and follow-up). 5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organization(s) contributes to resolving or reducing the impact of disease. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the body by weakening the immune system.
Once people get infected by the virus it remains in the body for life; some of the symptoms that can be expected are diarrhea, fever, headache, mouth soar, night sweat, and swollen lymph nodes, followed more serious illness with progression of the virus. However, many people reported having no symptoms and don’t even know they have the virus until they are diagnosed. After the patient is diagnose the patient can lived for a number of years before experiencing severe health issues, during this period the person with the disease could transfer the virus from one person to another.
The virus is transfer from one person to the other by certain body fluid which includes blood, semen, rectal/vaginal fluid and breast milk, and unprotected sex as the major route of transmission. The routes of transport are through mucous membrane, damage tissue or directly injected in the blood stream from needle or syringe (cdc. gov. 2014). This begins when the agent which is the virus believed to have started in Africa and transfer for animal to human, the agent past from one host to another, then you have the environment that support the disease and allow it to thrive in this case the blood.
It affect people in different ways, some people may get sick shortly after infected while others can live for a long period with no signs of the illness. There are many complications that are associated with HIV; majority of these complications are cause by weaken immune system cause by the destruction of cd4 t cell. Once the body loses the function of this cell it becomes susceptible to infection. The severity of the illness is depended on the number of cd4 cell in the blood stream. If the cd4 t cell dropped below 200 it put the patient at greater risk for infection and the morbidity becomes more significant.
The patient can pronounce with severe fungal infection, pneumonia, Kaposi and many more opportunist infection. Treatment is also determined by cd4 t cell count and plasma viral load, this information provides knowledge about extent of immune suppression of the patient and the level of the damage of the immune system. (Weinberg, J. , & Kovarik, C. , MD. 2010). This is called staging and the stages of the disease which decide the appropriate treatment recommended for that stage of the patient’s condition. Available treatment for HIV infected individuals currently includes HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy).
This treatment has proven to be effective by extending life of individuals affected by HIV, doing so by decreasing viral load, HIV transmission, disease progression, reducing severity of symptoms and preserved the immune system. Therefore, it is important for the patient to get tested to ensure treatment is no delayed and risk further complication. As the virus progress the illness associated with it becomes more complicated and difficult to treat because without treatment the immunodeficiency rises. “The majority of disease occurs in the advanced stages of HIV infection where
immunosuppression is the predominant influence Hogan, C. , & Wilkins, E. , (2011). ” Therefore for patient should seek early treatment and adhere to medication regimen to decrease progression of the infection and prevent further complication. Other issues that need to be address is measures need to be taken for early testing, without being tested many patient are able to transfer the virus from one person to another without even knowing. Early diagnose of the disease will give patient the opportunity to seek medical care and become knowledgeable of the step needed to take to prevent them from infecting other individual.
Several states have now implement policies to test newborn babies for the HIV virus without permission of the parents. cite. HIV affect people from all different background, however group on minority continue to be disproportionately impacted. This can be seen with majority of the reported case in the United State are of racial and ethnic minority population. A contributing factor to this problem, are lack of resources, high risk behavior and unequal access to health care people for minority population.
Cargill,VA& Stone, VE (2005) HIV is a public issue that has caused widespread epidemic infection and impacted people from all over the world. It affects individual of all ages but are more prevalent in young people with adolescents accounted for half of the 20 million new sexual infections reported in the United State CDC. GOV(2014 ). Other factors that played a role in the increase in HIV are the influence of an individual society; this include social determinants of the individual such as, behavior, access to health care, genetic, social influences and the person’s physical environment Maurer, F., & Smith, C. ,(2013).
These factors can have a significant impact on the individual’s health and the development of illness. This is because of genetic predisposition factors and certain risk behavior, also the disparity of health within population of racial and ethnic groups that prevent the availability of education and resources to fight HIV. One examples of this is problem with sexual assault on women in many under develop countries; these women and children has no choice in the matter there physical environment put them at risk and as a result many contracted HIV and other sexually transmitted disease.
Other issues include prostitution, drug use involve the sharing of unsterile needles and lack education to implement primary prevention. These issues are more prevalent in racial and ethnic minority group and impacted health is responsible for influencing health in a negative way. Center of Disease Control, (2014). HIV Transmission.
Retrieved from website: http://www. cdc. gov/hiv/basics/transmission. html Weinberg, J. , & Kovarik, C. ,MD. (2010). The who clinical staging system for HIV/AIDS. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 12(3), 202-206. Retrieved from http://virtualmentor.ama-assn. org/2010/03/pdf/cprl1-1003. pdf Hogan, C. , & Wilkins, E. (2011).
Neurological complications in HIV. Clinical Medicine, 11(6), 571-575. Retrieved from http://eds. a. ebscohost. com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? [email protected]&vid=5&hid=4108 Cargill , V. ,. , & Stone, V. ,. (2005). a minority health issue. Pubmed, 89(4), 895-912. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/15925655 Maurer, F. , & Smith, C. (2013). Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for families and populations. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.