1. The nervous and endocrine systems can interact through __________.
The nervous and endocrine systems can interact through all of these means.

2. Endocrine cells __________.
Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics.

3. Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.
Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

4. In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it; in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation. Are these two statements true or false?
Both statements are true.

5. All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it doesn’t
function independently of the endocrine system.

6. Endocrine cells
release their secretions directly into body fluids.

7. ________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
Hormones

8. Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at the same time.
a few

9. Peptide hormones ___________.
are composed of amino acids

10. Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.
intranuclear

11. Which of these hormones is not derived from an amino acid?
parathyroid hormone

12. Hormones known as “catecholamines” are
derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.

13. Peptide hormones are
composed of amino acids.

14. A kinase is an enzyme that performs
phosphorylation.

15. An activated G protein can trigger
All of the answers are correct.

16.Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
calmodulin.

17. Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization.
All of the answers are correct.

18. The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways.
endocrine

19. The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.
endocrine

20. A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).
one

21. Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
cyclic AMP

22. All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they
are produced by the suprarenal medulla.

23. Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
thyroid-stimulating hormone.

24. Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

25. Steroid hormones
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.

26. When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

27. Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
All of the answers are correct.

28. Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
All of the answers are correct.

29. The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
a G protein.

30. When adenyl cyclase is activated,
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

31. After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,
gene transcription is initiated.

32. The most complex endocrine responses involve the
hypothalamus.

33. Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
All of the answers are correct.

34. Which of the following hormones is/are water soluble and therefore bind(s) to extracellular receptors?
insulin and epinephrine

35. All target cells
have hormone receptors.

36. If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
glucagon

37. Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
cAMP.

38. The intracellular protein ________ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.
calmodulin

39. In the endocrine system, the functional counterparts of neural reflexes are ________.
endocrine reflexes

40. Receptors for ________, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.
catecholamines

41. The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to ________ on target cells.
receptors

42. Peripheral cells that respond to a hormone are called ________.
target cells

43. What is the chemical classification of this hormone?
Steroid

44. Which of the labels in the figure indicate the source of antidiuretic hormone?
The hypothalamic nuclei labeled C

45. Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?
ADH

46. The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.
hypothalamus

47. Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?
ACTH

48. Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
loss of ADH secretion

49. The primary function of ADH is to
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.

50. If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
TSH, ACTH, PRL

51. Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
ADH.

52. The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.

53. Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and oxytocin.

54. Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
All of the answers are correct.

55. The hypophyseal portal system
carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
carries ADH and oxytocin.
has two capillary plexuses c

56. The main action of antidiuretic hormone is:
increased water conservation by kidneys

57. Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
gigantism

58. Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
growth hormone

59. Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?
All of the answers are correct.

60. The posterior pituitary gland secretes
ADH.

61. The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
MSH.

62. Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except
oxytocin.

63. The hormone oxytocin
All of the answers are correct.

64. Growth hormone does all of the following, except that it
causes fat accumulation within adipocytes.

65. Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
somatomedins

66. The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
TSH.

67. The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
ACTH.

68. The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
FSH.

69. The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
LH.

70. The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
prolactin.

71. The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
somatotropin.

72. The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is
ADH.

73.After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
ADH

74.The term used to describe excess production of urine is
polyuria

75. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
All of the answers are correct.

76. The two lobes of the pituitary gland together secrete how many hormones?
9

77. PRL is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.
prolactin; corticotropin

78. The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is
oxytocin.

79. Identify the hormone labeled “4.”
thyroid-stimulating hormone

80. Identify the hormone labeled “1.”
corticotropin (ACTH)

81. A deficiency of which hormone can lead to diabetes insipidus?
14

82. Identify the hormone labeled “5.”
thyroxin

83. Identify the hormone labeled “13.”
oxytocin

84. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ________.
neurohypophysis

85. The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ________.
adenohypophysis

86. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars __________.
tuberalis

87. Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called ________.
gonadotropins

88.
Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?
thyroid

89. Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?
Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs.

90. Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?
iodine

91. Which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?
iodine

92. Which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration?
osteoclasts

93. Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?
All of the answers are correct.

94. Thyroid hormone contains the element
iodine.

95. Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
hypothyroidism.

96. The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
thyroxine.

97. A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
calcitonin.

98. The condition known as hirsutism can result from too
much androgen production.

99. The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
calcitonin.

100. Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.
PTH

101. Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

102. TSH plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones.
synthesis and release

103. The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.
endocrine

104. Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
All of the answers are correct.

105. Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
thyroid gland.

106. The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps except one. Identify the incorrect step
binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane

107. Which of the following is not an action of TSH?
inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

108. The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the ________.
isthmus

109. The thyroid gland is composed of many ________ that produce and store thyroid hormone.
follicles

110. Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid ________.
tyrosine

111. What is found in the area indicated by the arrow?
Thyroglobulin

112. __________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.
Parathyroid hormone

113. Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is false?
The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.

114. Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

115. Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn’t
build up bone.

116. The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
parathyroid hormone.

117. The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.

118. Which of the following is regulated by the gland indicated by the red arrow?
Blood calcium concentration

119. Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?
ACTH

120. Which of these is mismatched?
zone reticularis; norepinephrine

121.Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes except __________.
drowsiness

122.The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
androgens.

123.The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
glucocorticoids.

1124.The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
mineralocorticoids.

125.The suprarenal medulla produces
catecholamines.

126.A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
cortisol.

127. A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
aldosterone.

128. Cushing disease results from an excess of
glucocorticoids.

129. Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
aldosterone.

130. The suprarenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine.

131. Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.

132. A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following, except
ACTH levels.

133. If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
both an increase of insulin and an increase in blood glucose

134. Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
Addison disease.

135. A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
cortisol.

136. Cells of the suprarenal cortex produce
aldosterone.

137. Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
epinephrine

138. Which gland is called the “emergency gland” and helps the body adjust to stress?
adrenal (suprarenal)

139. Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
glucocorticoids

140. Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are:
mineralocorticoids

141. The ________ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney.
suprarenal

142. The outer layer of the suprarenal gland is the ________.
suprarenal cortex

143. The inner portion of the suprarenal gland is the ________.
suprarenal medulla

144. The suprarenal cortex produces steroid hormones called ________.
corticosteroids

145. Which of the following could occur with a hypersecreting tumor of this gland?
Elevation of blood pressure and blood glucose concentration

146. The __________ gland secretes melatonin.
pineal

147. Melatonin is secreted by __________.
pinealocytes

148. Which of these statements about the pineal gland is false?
It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

149. Which of these statements about melatonin is false?
exposure to light stimulates production

150. Pinealocytes produce
melatonin.

151. Melatonin is produced by the
pineal gland.

152. Each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it
is a component of the hypothalamus.

153. The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by
increased levels of melatonin.

154. Which cells are correctly matched to the hormones they produce?
beta cells; insulin

155. A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses except __________.
increased epinephrine secretion

156. Which of these is not produced by pancreatic islet cells?
digestive enzymes

157.
1. In type 2 diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin.
2. In type 1diabetes, no insulin is produced.
3. In both type 1 and type 2diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal.

158. Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to ________.
glucagon; insulin

159. If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
glucagon.

160. The primary target(s) of insulin is/are
All of the answers are correct.

161. The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
insulin.

162. In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,
All of the answers are correct.

163. Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
low blood glucose

164. Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the
zona reticularis

165. When blood glucose levels rise,
insulin is released.

166. When blood glucose levels fall,
glucagon is released.

167. The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
insulin.

168. The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
somatostatin.

169.The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces
digestive enzymes

170. Type II diabetes is characterized by:
a lack of response by target cells to insulin

171. Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?
insulin

172. Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?
blood-glucose concentration

173. The currently recognized normal range of blood-glucose is:
70 – 110 mg/dl

174. The pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
contain four types of endocrine cells.

175. The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
insulin.

176. Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
diabetes mellitus.

177. Which of the following would activate secretion of a hormone from this gland?
A fall in the blood glucose concentration

178. Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney not secrete?
angiotensin

179. Which of these is not a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?
cortisol

180. Adipose cells produce a hormone called __________ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.
leptin

181. Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following except __________.
lowering blood sugar by insulin

182. A rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except
increased urine production.

183. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the
lungs.

184. The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
angiotensin.

185. The interstitial cells of the testes produce
testosterone

186. Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ________ when stimulated by FSH.
estrogen

187. A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
progesterone.

188. The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
inhibin.

189. The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
thymosins.

190. Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells?
erythropoietin

191. The kidneys secrete
All of the answers are correct.

192. Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system.

193. The heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except
thymosin and thyroxine.

194. Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.
leptin

195. Which of the following is NOT involved in elevating blood calcium concentration?
Calcitonin

196. Which of these hormones is required for normal growth?
All of these hormones are required for normal growth.

197. Which of these statements about the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome is not true?
The dominant hormone is epinephrine.

198. Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones?
sex hormones

199. The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
epinephrine.

200. Proper growth requires which of these hormones?
All of the answers are correct.

201.During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is
mobilization of energy reserves.

202. If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
resistance

203. Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
glucocorticoids.

204. During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
lipid reserves are mobilized

205. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
failure of electrolyte balance.

206. Two hormones that have opposing effects are called ________.
antagonists

207. Two hormones that have additive effects are called ________.
synergists

208. When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called ________.
permissive

209. Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called ________.
integrative

210. The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is ________.
epinephrine

211. Which phase of the General Adaptation System is illustrated in this image?
Resistance phase

Endocrine cells Release their secretions directly into bodily fluids Steroid hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to an intercellular receptor. True or false True WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

The products of the endocrine glands are __________. hormones Steroid hormones are lipid molecules synthesized from ___________. cholesterol WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample All hormones are …

Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________. briefer in action more rapidly acting more localized in action all of the listed characteristics All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they are produced by …

The nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the Pony Express. Briefly explain this comparison. Nervous system uses electrochemical impulses rapid control. Endocrine system more acting system uses chemical messengers. Hormone Steroidal …

Permissive effect One hormone only works when another hormone is present Synergistic effect When two hormones act together and have a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Endocrine Gland: anterior pituitary Target Cell: thyroid Function of Target Cell: Releases it’s thyroid hormone ACTH Adrenocortictropic Stimulation Hormone Endocrine Gland: anterior pituitary Target Cell: adrenal cortex Function of Target Cell: releases hormones WE WILL WRITE …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy