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Air Embolism
Condition caused by air bubbles in the blood vessels

Ambient Temperature
Temperature of the surrounding environment.

Antivenin
An antitoxin that counteracts the effects of venom from the bite of a snake or insect or other animal

Bends
Term for bubbles of gas, especially nitrogen, in the blood vessels

Breath-holding Syncope
Loss of consciousness caused by a decreased breathing stimulus.

Conduction
Heat loss resulting from sitting on snow

Convection
Heat loss that occurs from helicopter rotor blade downwash

Core Temperature
Temperature of the central part of the body

Decompression Sickness
A condition resulting from nitrogen trapped in the body’s tissues caused by coming up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive. A symptom of decompression sickness is “the bends” or deep pain in the muscles and joints.

Diving Reflex
Slowing of the heart rate caused by sudden immersion in cold water.

Drowning
Death from suffocation after submersion in water.

Evaporation
Heat loss resulting from sweating

Frostbite
Destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene

Heat Cramp
Painful muscle spasms that occur after vigorous exercise

Heat Exhaustion
Caused by sever electrolyte loss, hypotension, dizziness, vomiting, and fainting. Leads to decreased blood pressure, cardiac output, organ failure, and death.

heatstroke
A physical condition induced by a person’s overexposure to high air temperatures, especially when accompanied by high humidity.

Hymernoptera
Bees, wasps, ants, and yellow jackets

Hyperthermia
Core temp greater than 101 degrees

hypothermia
Condition muscle spasms that occur after vigorous exercise

Laryngospasm
Severe constriction of the larynx and vocal cords

Radiation
Heat loss resulting from standing in a cold room

Respiration
The loss of body heat as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cooler air is inhaled

Reverse Triage
Process in which efforts are focused on those who are in respiratory and cardiac arrest, and different form conventional triage where such patients would be classified as deceased.

SCUBA
A system that delivers air to the mouth and lungs at various atmospheric pressures, increasing with the depth of the dive; stands for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

Turgor
Ability of the skin to resist deformation.

______ cause body heat to be lost as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cooler air is inhaled.
Respiration

Evaporation, the conversion of a liquid to a gas, is a process that requires
A. Energy
B. Circulating air
C. a warmer ambient temp
D. high humidity
Answer is A, energy

The rate and amount of heat loss by the body can be modified by all the following Except:
A. Increase heat production
B. Moving to an area where heat loss is decreased.
C. Wearing insulated clothing
D. Increase fluid intake
Answer is D, increasing fluid intake

The characteristic appearance of blue lips and fingertips seen in hypothermia is the result of:
Blood vessels constricting

S/Sx of severe systemic hypothermia include all of the following Except:
A. Weak pulse
B. Coma
C. Shivering
D. very slow RR
Answer is C, shivering

Hypothermia is more common among all of the following Except.
A. older individuals
B. long-distance athletes
C. infants and children
Answer is B, long-distance athletes

To assess a patients general temp, pull back you glove and place the back of your hand on the patients:
Abdomen, underneath the clothing

Never assume that a ______, pulseless patient is dead
A. apneic
B. Cyanotic
C. Cold
D. hypothermic
Answer is C, cold

Management of hypothermia in the field consists of all of the following Except:
Massaging the cold extremities

All of the following conditions refer to when exposed parts of the body become very cold, but not frozen, Except:
A. frostnip
B. trench foot
C. immersion foot
D. frostbite
Answer is D, frostbite

When the body is exposed to heat energy than it loses, _____ results.
hyperthermia

Contributing factors to the development of heat illness include all of the following Except:
A. high air temp
B. vigorous exercise
C. high humidity
D. increased fluid intake
Answer is D, increase fluid intake

It is important to remain hydrated while on duty. Drink at least ______ of water per day, and more when exertion or heat is involved.
3 liters

Which of the following statements about heat cramps are False?
They only occur when it is hot outside

S/Sx of heat exhaustion and associated hypovolemia include all of the following Except:
A. cold, clammy skin with ashen pallor
B. dizziness, weakness, or faintness
C. normal vital signs
D. normal thirst
Answer is D, normal thirst

Most spinal injuries in diving incidents affect the:
Cervical spine

Often, the first sign of heatstroke is:
A change in behavior

The least common but most serious illness caused by heat exposure, occurring when the body is subjected to more heat than it can handle and normal mechanisms for getting rid of excess heat are overwhelmed, is:
heatstroke

______ is the body’s reaction to an irritation of water entering the lower respiratory tract
Laryngospasm

Treatment of drowning/near drowning begins with:
rescue and removal from the water

In a diving emergency, _______occurs when bubbles of gas, especially nitrogen, obstruct the blood vessels
decompression sickness

If the near drowning victim has evidence of upper airway obstruction by foreign matter, which of the following would Not be considered a method for clearing it?
Place the patient in the recovery position to allow drainage.

You should never give up on resuscitation a cold-water drowning victim because:
The resulting hypothermia can protect vital organs from the lack of oxygen

The three phases of a dive, in the order they occur, are:
descent, bottom, ascent

Area usually affected by descent problems include:
the lungs

Potential problems associated with rupture of the lungs include all of the following Except:
hemopneumothorax

The organs most severely affected by air embolism are the:
brain and spinal cord

Black widow spiders may be found in?
New Hampshire, Georgia and woodpiles

Coral snakes venom is a powerful toxin that causes ______of the nervous system
paralysis

Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease are both spread through the ticks:
saliva

Signs of envenomation by a pit viper include all of the following Except:
swelling
chest pain
ecchymosis
severe burning pain at the site of injury
Answer is chest pain

Removal of a tick should be accomplished by:
using fine tweezers to pull it straight out of the skin

Which of the following statements regarding the brown recluse spider is False?
It is larger than the black widow spider

Treatment of a snake bite from a pit viper includes:
calming the patient, providing BLS as needed if the patient shows no signs of envenomation, and marking the skin with a pen over the swollen area to note whether swelling is spreading

At 2pm in July, temp is 105 and very humid, you are called to a man down at the park. When you arrive you recognize him as a alcoholic who calls all the time for EMS service. the man has been sitting under a tree when fell over, unconscious.

As you assess the patient, he has cold, clammy skin and a dry tongue, you suspect that:
He has suffered heat exhaustion

As you look closer, you note that he is shivering and his RR 20 bpm. you begin to have a strange felling that he is now getting:
Hypothermic

The direct transfer of heat from his body to the cold ground is called
conduction

You put back on your gloves and place the back of your hand on his skin at the abdomen, and the skin feels cool. Again you suspect:
Hypothermia

How will you treat this patient?
Prevent conduction heat loss and convection heat loss. Remove the patient from the environment

Small infants have a poor ability to thermoregulate and are unstable to shiver to control heat loss until about the age of
12 to 18 months

Most frostbitten parts are:
A. Soft and moist
B. hard and waxy
C. Soft and waxy
D. hard and moist
Answer is Hard and Waxy

If a patient has cold skin temp, he or she likely is?
A. hypothermic
B. hyperthermic
C. hypovolemic
D. hypoglycemic
Answer is Hypothermic

If a patient has a hot skin temp, they are likely?
Hyperthermic

When treating multiple victims of lighting strikes, who should you concentrate your efforts on first?
Unconscious patients in respiratory or cardiac arrest

What is the best method of inactivating a jellyfish sting?
Applying vinegar

Most heat stroke cases occur when the temp is around ______ and the humidity is 80%
80 degrees

pCOL

Common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include all of the following Except:
A. Nausea
B. Tachycardia
C. Hot, dry skin
D. Headache
Answer is Hot, dry skin

Drowning is Most accurately defined as?
Death from suffocation after submersion in water

A frostbitten foot can be ID by the presence of?
A. Gross deformity
B. Blanching of the skin
C. Soft, smooth skin
D. Mottling and blisters
Answer is mottling and blisters

In contrast to the brown recluse spider, the black widow spider.
Is larger and has a red-orange hourglass mark on its abdomen

Which of the following medications increases a persons risk of a heat-related emergency?
A. Motrin
B. Aspirin
C. diuretics
D. Tylenol
Answer is diuretics

Rough handling of a hypothermic patient with a pulse may cause:
Ventricular fibrillation

The venom of a brown recluse spider is cytotoxic, meaning that it?
causes severe local tissue damage

S/Sx of an air embolism include all of the following Except:
pale skin

The most prominent symptom of decompression sickness is?
Abdominal or joint pain

Your dispatched to a residence for a young female who is sick, the patient complains of a rash on her lower extremities. Your assessment reveals a small blister on her inner thigh. As your partner is taking the patients vital signs, she states she has just returned from camping 2 days ago. You should suspect:
A. Rocky mountain spotted fever
B. Exposure to poison ivy
C. An allergic reaction
D. Lyme disease
Answer is Lyme disease

A 30 year old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for 18 hours. Outside temp is 30 degrees, he is placed in the warm ambulance, he is unconscious, pale, and apneic. After initiating ventilations, you should?
A. apply chemical heat packs to his groin and axillae area
B. Assess for a carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds
C. Begin chest compression and transport at once
D. Apply an AED and assess his cardiac rhythm
Answer is B, Assess for a carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds

All of the following terms are used to describe a cold body part that is not frozen, Except:
A. frostnip
B. frostbite
C. trench foot
Answer is B, frostbite

Burns associated with lighting strikes are typically:
Superficial

High humidity reduced the body’s ability to lose heat through:
A. Convection
B. Radiation
C. Conduction
D. Evaporation
Answer is Evaporation

A 31 year old was by a creek & was bitten on the leg by an unidentified snake. The patient is conscious & alert with no apparent distress. Your assessment reveals 2 small marks with minimal pain & swelling. You administer O2, what would you do next?
A. Supine position, splint the leg & transport
B. Elevate leg and give antivenin
C. Transporting only with close, continuous monitoring
Answer is A, supine position, splinting the leg & transport

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