EMT Orange Book – Ch 1 (AAOS, 10th)

advanced EMT
(AEMT) An individual who has training in specific aspects of advanced life support, such as intravenous therapy, and the administration of certain emergency medications. (pp 29-30)

advanced life support
(ALS) Advanced lifesaving procedures, some of which are now being provided by the EMT. (pp 29-30)

Americans With Disabilities Act
(ADA) Comprehensive legislation that is designed to protect individuals with disabilities against discrimination. (pp 29-30)

automated external defibrillator
(AED) A device that detects treatable life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia) and delivers the appropriate electrical shock to the patient. (pp 29-30)

certification
A process in which a person, an institution, or a program is evaluated and recognized as meeting certain predetermined standards to provide safe and ethical care. (pp 29-30)

continuous quality improvement
(CQI) A system of internal and external reviews and audits of all aspects of an EMS system. (pp 29-30)

emergency medical dispatch
(EMD) A system that assists dispatchers in selecting appropriate units to respond to a particular call for assistance and in providing callers with vital instructions until the arrival of EMS crews. (pp 29-30)

emergency medical responder
(EMR) The first trained individual, such as a police officer, fire fighter, lifeguard, or other rescuer, to arrive at the scene of an emergency to provide initial medical assistance. (pp 29-30)

emergency medical services
(EMS) A multidisciplinary system that represents the combined efforts of several professionals and agencies to provide prehospital emergency care to the sick and injured. (pp 29-30)

emergency medical technician
(EMT) An individual who has training in basic life support, including automated external defibrillation, use of a definitive airway adjunct, and assisting patients with certain medications. (pp 29-30)

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
(HIPAA) Federal legislation passed in 1996, Its main effect in EMS is in limiting availability of patients’ health care information and penalizing violations of patient privacy. (pp 29-30)

intravenous therapy
(IV) The delivery of medication directly into a vein. (pp 29-30)

licensure
The process whereby a state allows individuals to perform a regulated act. (pp 29-30)

medical control
Physician instructions that are given directly by radio or cell phone (online/direct) or indirectly by protocol/guidelines (off-line/indirect), as authorized by the medical director of the service program. (pp 29-30)

medical director
The physician who authorizes or delegates to the EMT the authority to provide medical care in the field. (pp 29-30)

National EMS Scope of Practice Model
A document created by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that outlines the skills performed by various EMS providers. (pp 29-30)

paramedic
An individual who has extensive training in advanced life support, including endotracheal intubation, emergency pharmacology, cardiac monitoring, and other advanced assessment and treatment skills. (pp 29-30)

primary prevention
Efforts to prevent an injury or illness from ever occurring. (pp 29-30)

primary service area
(PSA) The designated area in which the EMS service is responsible for the provision of prehospital emergency care and transportation to the hospital. (pp 29-30)

public health
Focused on examining the health needs of entire populations with the goal of preventing health problems. (pp 29-30)

public safety access point
A call center, staffed by trained personnel who are responsible for managing requests for police, firefighting, and ambulance services. (pp 29-30)

quality control
The responsibility of the medical director to ensure that the appropriate medical care standards are met by EMTs on each call. (pp 29-30)

secondary prevention
Efforts to limit the effects of an injury or illness that you cannot completely prevent. (pp 29-30)

AEMT
Advanced EMT (pp 29-30)

ALS
Advanced Life Support (pp 29-30)

ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act (pp 29-30)

AED
Automated External Defibrillator (pp 29-30)

CQI
Continuous Quality Improvement (pp 29-30)

EMD
Emergency Medical Dispatch (pp 29-30)

EMR
Emergency Medical Responder (pp 29-30)

EMS
Emergency Medical Services (pp 29-30)

EMT
Emergency Medical Technician (pp 29-30)

HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (pp 29-30)

IV
IntraVenous therapy (pp 29-30)

PSA
Primary Service Area (pp 29-30)

DOT
Department of Transportation (p 5)

“The White Paper”
A report, published in 1966, that led to EMS as we know it today. The title was, “Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society”. (p 9)

NHTSA
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (p 6)

“Orange Book”
The first EMT textbook, originally prepared by AAOS in 1971, titled “Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured”. (p 9)

“Star of Life”
A graphic symbol that represents EMS, containing a white serpent and staff on a six-pointed blue star. It is an NHTSA registered certification mark. (p 7)

AAOS
American Academy of Orthopedaedic Surgeons (p 9)

patient assessment
The foundation of any EMS call. Involves determining what is wrong with the patient, including which complaints are life threatening. (p 7)

packaging
Preparing a patient for transport and transporting them. (p 7)

BLS
Basic Life Support (p 8, 1515)

basic life support
Noninvasive emergency lifesaving care that is used to treat medical conditions, including airway obstruction, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest. (p 8, 1515)

CPR
cardiopulmonary rescuscitation (p 8)

National Standard Curriculum
Developed in the 1970s by DOT for the training of paramedics and EMTs. (p 9)

NREMT
National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (p 11)

National Registry
The NREMT (National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians) is a nongovernmental agency that provides national standardized EMS testing and certification in much of the United States. (p 11)

GPS
Global Positioning System (p 15)

NEMSIS
National EMS Information System (ems.gov) (p 19)

WHO
World Health Organization (p 21)

H1N1
the swine flu (p 21)

CDC
Centers for Disease Control (and Prevention) (p 21)

emergency
A serious situation, such as injury or illness, that threatens the life or welfare of a person or group of people and requires immediate intervention. (pp 25, 1520)

critical thinking
A complex combination of skills that includes: Rationality, Self-awareness, Open-mindedness, Judgement, and Discipline. (p 25)

endotracheal intubation
Insertion of an endotracheal tube directly through the larynx between the vocal chords and into the trachea to maintain and protect an airway. (p 30, 1521)

cardiac monitoring
The act of viewing the electrical activity of the heart through the use of an ECG machine or cardiac monitor. (p 30, 1516)

ECG
Electrocardiogram. (p 1520)

ventricular fibrillation
Disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest. (p 29, 1538)

ventricular tachycardia
A rapid heart rhythm in which the elecrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest. (p 29, 1538)

cardiac arrest
A state in which the heart fails to generate effective and detectable blood flow; pulses are not palpable in cardiac arrest, even if muscular and electrical activity continutes in the heart. (p 1516)

airway adjunct
An artificial airway which can be used to keep a pathway between the lungs and mouth/nose. (p 29, Wikipedia)

Components of an EMS System (14)
(3P) Public Access, Public Education, Prevention. (3E) EMS Research, Evaluation, Education Systems. (2C) Clinical Care, Communication Systems. (2I) Integration of Health Services, Information Systems. (4 others) Medical Direction, Human Resources, Legislation and Regulation, System Finance. (p 14)

Professional Attributes of EMTs (11)
Integrity, Empathy, Respect. Self-motivation, Self-confidence. Communications, Time management, Teamwork and diplomacy. Appearance and hygiene. Patient advocacy, Careful delivery of care. (p 23)

Roles and Responsibilities of the EMT (10 of 19)
Emergency vehicle operation. Be an on-scene leader. Perform an evaluation of the scene. Gain patient access. Perform patient assessment. Resolve emergency incidents. Uphold medical and legal standards. Ensure and protect patient privacy. Give administrative support. Give back to the profession. (p 23)

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advanced EMT (AEMT) An individual who has training in specific aspects of advanced life support, such as intravenous therapy, and the administration of certain emergency medications. advanced life support (ALS) Advanced lifesaving procedures, some of which are now being provided …

Abdominal aortic aneurysm or AAA A condition in which the layers of the aorta in the abdomen weaken. This causes blood to leak between the layers of the artery, causing it to bulge and sometimes rupture. Advance directives Documents that …

abandonment Unilateral termination of care by the EMT without the patient’s consent and without making provisions for transferring care to another medical professional with the skills and training necessary to meet the needs of the patient. advance directive Written documentation …

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