EMT MOD5 – Chapter18 General Pharmacology

Why should EMTs study pharmacology?
Answer
As an EMT, you will be trusted to administer medications in emergency situations; many of these may be lifesaving, but there is potential to do harm.
An EMT must know the manufacturer, sources, characteristics, and effects of every medication that has been prescribed to the patient.
As an EMT, you will be trusted to administer medications in emergency situations, although many of these may do nothing but give the patient false hope.
An EMT must know the sources, characteristics, and effects of each medication that the physician may prescribe.
As an EMT, you will be trusted to administer medications in emergency situations; many of these may be lifesaving, but there is potential to do harm.

Which of the following is a complete list of the medications an EMT can assist the patient in taking or administer under the direction of the Medical Director?
Answer
Prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, prescribed nitroglycerin, and prescribed epinephrine auto-injectors
Any over-the-counter medication, oral glucose, and oxygen
Aspirin, acetaminophen, oral glucose, insulin, prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors.
Aspirin, oral glucose, oxygen, prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors
Aspirin, oral glucose, oxygen, prescribed bronchodilator inhalers, nitroglycerin, and epinephrine auto-injectors

Why do EMTs give aspirin to the patient on the ambulance?
Answer
Aspirin reduces the heart’s ability to beat fast and works to prevent rapid heart rate.
Aspirin reduces the pain level in patients who are in pain.
Aspirin reduces the blood’s ability to clot and works to prevent clot formation in patients suffering chest pain.
It is given to calm the patient by reducing the pain because stress is the real killer.
Aspirin reduces the blood’s ability to clot and works to prevent clot formation in patients suffering chest pain.

What condition must be present before you give oral glucose?
Answer
The patient must have a history of diabetes.
The patient, if conscious, must be able to swallow; if unconscious, you can apply the gel to a tongue depressor and place it between the cheek and gum or under the tongue.
The patient must be conscious and able to swallow with an altered mental status and history of diabetes.
The patient must be unconscious and have a history of diabetes.
The patient must be conscious and able to swallow with an altered mental status and history of diabetes.

What medication is given when a patient suffers from a medical or traumatic condition called hypoxia?
Answer
Oxygen
Oral glucose
Epinephrine
Aspirin
Oxygen

Which of the following statements is true concerning oxygen?
Answer
Never give oxygen to a chronic obstructed pulmonary disease patient.
Always document the need for oxygen by pulse oximetry before giving it to the patient.
Only withhold oxygen to anyone who is allergic to it.
Never withhold oxygen to any patient who needs it.
Never withhold oxygen to any patient who needs it.

Nitroglycerin is indicated for which of the following chief complaints?
Answer
Decreased level of consciousness
Chest pain
Headache
Difficulty breathing
Chest pain

Which of the following is a potential side effect of nitroglycerin?
Answer Decreased blood pressure
Sudden increase in heart rate
Difficulty breathing
All of the above
Decreased blood pressure

Which of the following is often prescribed for a patient with a heart condition?
Answer
Ventolin
Nitroglycerin
An epinephrine auto-injector
Non-aspirin pain relievers such as Tylenol
Nitroglycerin

Epinephrine delivered by auto-injector may be indicated for patients with which of the following conditions?
Answer
Drug overdose
Severe allergies to peanut, shellfish, penicillin, or bee stings
Chest pain
Chronic pulmonary diseases
.
Severe allergies to peanut, shellfish, penicillin, or bee stings

Which of the following is a desired action of epinephrine delivered by auto-injector?
Answer
Constriction of blood vessels
Constriction of coronary arteries
Dilation of coronary arteries
Decrease in blood pressure
.
Constriction of blood vessels

Which of the following is an example of a medication’s trade name?
Answer
Epinephrine
Nitrostat
4 dihydroxyphenyl acetate
Oxygen
Nitrostat

Which of the following BEST describes a contraindication to a medication?
Answer An unintended action of the drug
The way in which a drug causes its effects
A reason why you should avoid giving a medication to a patient
A reason why you should give a medication to a patient
A reason why you should avoid giving a medication to a patient

A drug’s form refers to which of the following?
Answer
Its physical state, such as powder, liquid, or gas
The mandatory paperwork that must be completed when giving any drug
The type of container it comes in
The way in which it is administered
Its physical state, such as powder, liquid, or gas

Which of the following describes the sublingual route of medication administration?
Answer
The medication is injected under the skin.
The medication is breathed into the lungs, such as from an inhaler.
The medication is placed under the tongue.
The medication is swallowed whole, not chewed.
The medication is placed under the tongue.

Your patient is a 59-year-old woman with a history of emphysema. Per protocol, you have assisted the patient in using her medication inhaler. Which of the following must be documented?
Answer The chemical name of the medication
The expiration date of the medication
The patient’s response to the medication
All of the above
The patient’s response to the medication

How is activated charcoal, which is carried by some EMS systems, supplied for use in emergency situations?
Answer
As a powder, which is premixed with water
As a gel or paste
As tablets
As a fine liquid spray for inhalation
As a powder, which is premixed with water

Which of the following should you anticipate when giving nitroglycerin to a patient?
Answer
A drop in the patient’s blood pressure
A patient complaint of headache
A change in the level of pain experienced by the patient
All of the above
All of the above

You have just administered nitroglycerin to a 68-year-old patient. Within a few minutes, she complains of feeling faint and lightheaded, but states that she is still having some chest pain. Which of the following would be the BEST sequence of actions?
Answer
Lower the head of the stretcher and take the patient’s blood pressure.
Administer activated charcoal to prevent further absorption of the nitroglycerin and closely monitor the patient’s blood pressure.
Advise the patient that this is a normal occurrence and administer a second dose of nitroglycerin.
Increase the amount of oxygen you are giving to the patient before administering a second dose of nitroglycerin.
Lower the head of the stretcher and take the patient’s blood pressure.

You respond to a medical call for a 59-year-old female complaining of tightness in her chest. You place her on a high concentration of oxygen and prepare for a short 5-minute transport to the hospital. The patient tells you she is on nitroglycerin, which she has not taken. Your partner tells you that you can give aspirin per protocol. Should you delay the patient transport to give the medication and why?
Answer
No, any delay will cause the patient more heart damage; each delay weakens the myocardium.
Yes, the nitroglycerin will cause the blood vessels to dilate and restore some blood flow, and the aspirin will slow the clotting process.
Yes, the nitroglycerin will cause the heart to beat stronger and restore some blood flow, and the aspirin will ease the pain.
No, any delay will cause the patient more stress; she needs to be in a definitive care facility.
Yes, the nitroglycerin will cause the blood vessels to dilate and restore some blood flow, and the aspirin will slow the clotting process.

Which of the following instructions should you give to a patient whom you are about to assist with administering epinephrine?
Answer
Insert the mouthpiece and inhale deeply as you depress the canister.
I am going to inject medication into your thigh.
Open your mouth and lift your tongue so I can spray this medication under your tongue.
This is not pleasant tasting, but it is important that you drink all of it.
I am going to inject medication into your thigh.

Bronchodilator inhalers have several common side effects, which include:
Answer
decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate.
bronchodilation and increased heart rate.
vasoconstriction and increased heart rate.
jitteriness and increased heart rate.
.
jitteriness and increased heart rate.

What is the first step in giving aerosol medications?
Answer
Contact medical control to receive permission to give the medication.
Determine that the inhaler actually belongs to the patient.
Make sure the patient is suffering from asthma, emphysema, or bronchitis.
Complete the primary assessment and take vital signs.
Determine that the inhaler actually belongs to the patient.

Nitroglycerin (Nitro) is used for patients with recurrent chest pain or a history of heart attack. Nitro is supplied in what two ways?
Answer
Pills and injectable
Aerosol and spray
Pills and spray
Ointment and pills
Pills and spray

What are the actions of nitroglycerin on the human body?
Answer
It reduces the pain in the myocardium and lowers blood pressure.
It causes the dilation of coronary blood pressure and reduces pain in the myocardium.
It causes the constriction of bronchioles and reduces pain in the myocardium.
It causes the dilation of coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.
It causes the dilation of coronary blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.

A serious negative interaction for giving Nitrostat is a drug interaction with what medications?
Answer
Nitroglycerin, Ventolin, and epinephrine
Sildenafil, vardenafil, and epinephrine
Viagra, Levitra, or medication for erectile dysfunction
Oral glucose, Viagra, and aspirin
Viagra, Levitra, or medication for erectile dysfunction

Name the type of medical direction consisting of standing orders and protocols.
Answer
Off-line
Verbal
On-line
Written
Off-line

What is the indication for giving an epinephrine auto-injector in a life-threatening allergic reaction?
Answer
It will help raise the patient’s blood pressure and slow the heart rate.
It will constrict the patient’s airway passages and blood vessels.
It will help constrict the patient’s blood vessels and relax the airway passages.
It will help dilate the patient’s blood vessels and relax the airway passages.
It will help constrict the patient’s blood vessels and relax the airway passages.

What are the names given to each medication listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia?
Answer
Official, chemical, and generic
Manufacturers, general, and governmental
Trade, chemical, and generic
Trade, brand, and generic
Trade, chemical, and generic

The symptoms or circumstances for which a medication is given are called:
Answer
contraindications.
indications.
side effects.
untoward effects.
indications

When you give patients nitroglycerin, they sometimes develop a headache. This would be called a:
Answer
side effect.
contraindication.
untoward effect.
indication.
untoward effect.

You are called to the school where a 16-year-old female has trouble breathing from a possible allergic reaction. You arrive and find the patient wheezing, with cool clammy skin, and holding an epinephrine auto-injector. After you assess the patient and contact medical control, you are advised to give the medication. When you give the patient the epinephrine auto-injector she develops symptoms of anxiety: dizziness, headache, nausea, nervousness, paleness, sweating, tremors, vomiting, and weakness. These symptoms are considered:
Answer
contraindications.
untoward effects.
side effects.
indications.
side effects.

The epinephrine auto-injector is given via the _______________ route.
Answer
oral
enteral
digestive
parenteral
parenteral

Nitroglycerin is given via the _______________ route.
Answer
parenteral
lingual
sublingual
enteral

.

sublingual

Question 35

Which of the following BEST describes the five rights?
Answer
In date, right medication, right order, right dose, right time
Right patient, right medication, in date, right dose, right route
Right decision, right medication, right order, right dose, right place
Right patient, right medication, right time, right dose, right route

Right patient, right medication, right time, right dose, right route

Choose the correct completion to this statement regarding IV administration: This route is used to administer medication into the body directly or through the bloodstream and is:
Answer
beyond the scope of the EMT level.
allowed in larger cities and more advanced EMS services.
used in advanced life support only when the patient is intubated.
only performed on advanced life support services
beyond the scope of the EMT level.

The study of the effects of medications on the body in relation to age and weight is called:
Answer
pharmacology.
pharmacodynamics.
measurement and documentation.
pharmacokinetics.
pharmacodynamics

The EMT, after administering any medication, must do which of the following?
Answer
Reconsider the five rights, reassess the patient, and contact medical control.
Document the administration, reassess the patient, and report to the receiving facility.
Wait 5 minutes, repeat the medication if needed, and reassess the patient’s vitals.
Document the route, dose, and time; reassess the patient; and re-administer the medication.
Document the administration, reassess the patient, and report to the receiving facility.

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