The standards for prehospital emergency care and the individuals who provide it are typically regulated by the
state office of EMS

EMT training in nearly every state meets or exceeds the guidelines recommended by the

Cardiac monitoring, pharmalogical interventions, and other advanced treatment skills are functions of the

If an EMT candidate has been convicted of a felony of misdemeanor he or she should
contact the state EMS office for more information

As an EMT you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain based on
your local EMS protocols

Which of the following statements regarding the NREMT is correct?
The NREMT provides a national standard for EMS testing

A layperson is often trained to perform all of the following skills except
insertion of an oropharyngeal airway

EMRs like firefighters, law, and park rangers are an integral part of the EMS system because
they have the skills necessary to initiate immediate care and assisst EMT on their arrival

The ____ deals with well-being of the EMT, career progression, and EMT compensation
human resources department

The EMT is legally obligated to protect a patients privacy according to

Which requires about 150 hours of training?

The EMT certification exam is designed to
ensure that EMT’s are competent and have the same level of knowledge and skills

The EMT’s first priority is
personal safety

National guidelines for EMS care are intended to
provide more consistent delivery of EMS care across the US

WHich is used by all EMS providers?

What is an EMTs primary service area?
The main area in which EMS agency opperates

Online medical contol requires
phone or radio contact with the medical director

What should an EMT do to limit errors in the field?
follow agencys written protocol

Prehospital patient care decisions should be based on
EMS research

AHA protocols are based on
evidence-based research

The ability to handle multiple tasks based on their priority is called
time management

The ability to take appropriate action with little direction is known as

You encourage a patient to go to the hospital by ambulance even though the transport will keep you several hours after regular quit time this is an example of
patient advocacy

The ability to understand others and have them understand you is known as
effective communication

You are caring for a driver who struck a pole she admits to drinking alcohol but orders you not to tell. You should report this to
the recieveing nurse or doctor

Common factors that influence how a patient reacts to the stress of an illness or injury include all except
assessment by EMT

Hazards associated with a structural fire include all of the following except
Carbon dioxide deficiency

Which of the following regarding HIV is correct?
There is no vaccine against HIV

Scene of domestic violence situation you approach the door and you hear “he has a gun” your most appropriate action should be
seek a safe place and request law enforcement assistance

determination of exposure is an important component of an infection control plan because it
defines who is as risk for contact with blood and body fluids and which tasks pose a risk of exposure

Which of the following is the most effective strategy for managing stress
focusing on delivering high-quality patient care

While on duty your partnet asks you on a date and touches you inappropriatly without consetn you should
tell your partner to stop and report to supervisor

The most important consideration at the scene of a hazardous material incident is
ensuring your personal safety

15 year old was killed by a car and is disfigured his parents demand to see him you should
advise them that their son had disfiguring and ask if there is anyone they want you to contact

If mask cannot be placed on a coughing patient the CDC recommends you maintain a distance of ___ feet if possible

75 year old man died of terminal illness at home. When you enter a family member becomes verbally abusive and pushes you and says you took to long to get there You
retreat and notify law person

vector borne transmission of an infectious organism occurs via
smoke or dust
animal or insect

At scene powerlines are lying across car the patients inside are conscious you should:
mark off danger zone around down lines

Which statement is most consistent with the barganing phase of grieving
“I will be complient with meds if i can see my grandson graduate”

Your partner seems unusually agitates during a call with an elderly patient when you get back you smell alcohol you should
discreetly report suspisions to supervisor

The most effective way to preserve your own body heat in the cold wet weather is to
wear at least 3 layers of clothing

when a patient is dying they may experience regression is this defined as
behavor consistent with an earlier developmental stage like childhood

What type of stress reaction occurs when an EMT is exposed to many insignificant stressors over a long period
Cumulative stress reaction

The general adaptation syndrome is characterized by which phase?
alarm response, reaction and resistance, and recovery

As an EMT it is important to remember htat the signs and symptoms of cumulative stres
may not be obvious or present at all times

Which regarding the different stages of the grieving process is correct?
The stages may occur simultaneously

trasporting a 40 year old man with respiratory distress he tells u he had TB you should
apply regular mask on patient and HEPA respiration on you

At a fire you see a woman frantically moving around in her buring house you should
immediatly notify the incident commander or safety officer

CISM can occur at an ongoing scene in all of following EXCEPT
when patients are being assessed or treated

When decontaminating the back of your ambulance after a call you should
allow surfaces to air dry unless otherwise indicated in directions

When performing duties an EMT is generally expected to
exercise reasonable care and act prudently

Which requires you to notify appropriate authorities
attempted suicide

As an EMT the standards of emergency care are often partially based on
locally accepted protocols

Acting in such a way to make others feel immediate bodily harm is called

Most acurtly defines negligence
deviation from the standard of care that may result in further injury

Your best protection against legal liability when a competent patient refuses EMS care is to
thoroughlt document the entire event

Which more accurately depicts informed consent
An EMT advises a patient of the risk of recieveing treatment

Arrive at a scene you recognize the patient as the drunk driver who killed your brother several years earlier. A backup ambulance is en route you should
Begin two rescuer CPR and apply the AED ASAP

Which of the following about patient care report is correct
It is difficult to prove actions not on the report

Where would you most likely find info on a patients wishes to be an organ donor
drivers license

While transporting a stable patient with chest pain to hospital you encounter a major crash with several critical ppl you should
continue transporting your patient and notify dispatcher of crash

In order for a DNR to not be valid it must
clearly state the patients medical problem

Which is NOT protected health info
location of the call

A patient regains consciousness en route to ER and they tell you they dont want to go to the hospital
assess whether or not the patients mental conditon is impaired

If an action or procedure that was performed on a patient is not documented on patient care report
it was not performed n the eyes of th law

suspect a 6 year old broke her leg after falling the mom refuses you to continue treatment you:
try to persuade the mother that treament is needed

Maintaining the chain of evidence at the scene of the crime should include
not cutting through holes in clothing that were caused by weapons

Which of the statements of consent is the MOST correct
a patient can consent to transport but can legally refuse to be treated

You are dispatched to the residence of a person who frequently calls 911 for nonemergency you:
respond as you would normally

In many states a minor may be treated as an adult for the purpose of consenting or refusing medical treatment if the minor:
is self supporting and lives by himself

16 year old has asthma attack at middle school she is conscious and alert but in severe respirtory distress. The nurse cant contact parents you
provide treatment up to your level of trianing and transport the child at once

To help protect patients EMS agancies are required to have
a privaacy oficer to answer questions

You respond to a 59 year old man unconscious, slow shallow breathing and weak pulse. Family says he has terminal brain cancer and doenst want to be resuscitated but they cant find the DNR
begin treatment and contact medical control as needed

65 year old with repiratory distress, place him in a comfortable position but dont apply oxygen. He experiences cardiac arrest and then dies

The EMTs scope of practice within his or her local response area is defined by
medical director

Which of the following statements regarding nervous system control of the CV system is correct
baroreceptor located through out the body provide information to the brain regarding blood pressure

The back up system of respiratory control which is based on low concenrtations of Oxygen in the blood is called the
hypoxic drive

Which is NOT a function of the skin
metabolic coordination

The ___ plane seperates the body into left and right halves

Activities such as walking, talking, and writting are regulated exclusivly by the:
somatic nervous system (body movement)

function of internal organs


the distal aspect of the tibia forms the
medial malleolus

The ____ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma as well as the frontal bone of the cranium

Which of the following organs or structures lies in the retroperitoneal space

Pathophysiology is the study of functional changes that occur when the body reacts to a particular

Relative to the kidneys the liver is

CNS is composed of
brain and spinal cord

The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the muscles of the ventricle relaxes and the ventricle fills with blood is called

What is the function of platelets?
inital formation of blood clots

____ pressure is exerted by a liquid and occurs when blood is moved through the artery at relatively high pressures

Warn out blood cells, foregin substances and bacteria are filtered from the blood by the

The diaphragm is a unique muslce becasue it
is both voluntary and involuntary

The ____ is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundry of the thorax, seperating the thorax from abdomen

In relation to the chest the back is

The part of the brain that control the left sideof the body
right side of the cerbrum

Which of the following arteries does NOT carry highly oxygenated blood

Your ability to remain awake is a function of
reticular activating system

The connecting nerve, a nerve of the peripheral nervous system functions by
connecting the sensory and motor nerves by bypassing the brain

Bile is produced by the liver and concentrated and stored in the

The bones that comprise the fingers and toes are called

The inferior cartilaginous tip of sternum is called
xiphoid process

An unrestrined patient is sitting in his car after a crash. He is conscious, alert and has no visible trauma and his complaning of nack and back pain. Beofr eremoving him from his car you should
apply a cervical collar an dimmobilize him with a vest style device

Situations in which you should use the rapid extrication ttechnique include all except
a patient who can be properly assessed while still in the vehicle

When pulling a patient you should extend your arms no more than ____ in front of your torso
15 to 20

When carrying a patient on a backboard up or down stairs
keep the head elevated

Which of the following reguarding the scoop strecher is NOT correct
A scoop strecher will provide adequate immobilization of a patients spinal column

Prior to applying medical restrains to a combative patient you should
evaluate patient for potentially correctible cause of combativeness like head injury hypoxia or hypoglycemia

Which is the most apporpriate device to use when immobilizing a patient with a suspected spinal injury
long back board

in most instances you should move a patient on a wheeled ambulance strecher by
pushing the head while your partner guides the foot

An EMT may injure his or her back even if it is straight if the
back is bent forward over the hips

Which of the following conditions or situations presents the MOST unique challenge to the EMT when immobilizing an elderly patient on a long backboard
abnormal spinal curvature

The most serious consequence of poorly planned or rushed patient movemnt is
injury to you or the patient

With proper technique you and your partner should be able to life a patient who is
220 lbs

When a person is standing upright the weight of anything being lifter and carried in the hands first reflects on to the
shoulder girdle

To avoid injury when pushing a patient or other object you should
avoif pushing patient with elbows fully extended

49 year old male acute abdominal pain, laying on floor, conscious and alert. Weighs an excess of 350 FIRST
request any additional personnel before making any attempts to move him

Which regarding weight distribution is correct
the majority of a horozontal patients weight is in the torso

The direct carry is used to transfer a patient
from a bed to an ambulance strecher

to minimize risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient you should
keep weight as close toyour body as possible

Which of the statments about power lift is correct
it is the safest and most powerful method of lifting a patient

a critical aspect of the rapid extraction technique is to
maintain stabalization of the spine at all times

which of the following regarding neonatal isolette is correct
The isolette serves to keep the neonate warm and protects from excess handling

Two eldery people found unconcius in their bed no evidence of trauma. Smell of natural gas in residence MOST appropriate action
quickly exit residence and request fire deparment to move them

Which of the following situations would a driect ground lift be the most appropriate
a conscious patient complaing of abdominal pain

TO protect a restrained patient and prevent him from using leverage to break free the EMT shoudl secure
one arm above the head

In which of the following is an emergency patient move indicated
The EMT is unable to protect the patient from sceen hazards

The EMS system includes EMRs becasue
the presence of a person trained to initiate BLS and other urgent care cannot be ensured

Which does NOT involve the administration of ALS
a 64 year old cardiac arrest patient defibrillated with an AED

An appropriate demonstration of professionalism when your patient is frightened demanding or unpleasent is
nonjudgemental, compassionate, respectful

provides a national standard for EMS testing

person who authorizes EMT personnel to perform
medical director

unique function of EMD
providing callers with life saving instructions

CQI is designed to
identify areas of improvement and provide training if needed

both positive and negative stree have these physical manifestations
perspiration, tensed muscle, increased respiration

MOST effective for managing stress
talk about it with people you trust

Dont say to a dying patient
“things will get better in time”

Approach a scene with a large tanker truck and fire is en route as well
maintain a safe distance and try to read the place card with binoculars

Loading a unconscious patient into ambulance and the arm gets caught you are liable for neglegence under
res ipsa loquitor
when EMT is liable even though plantiff cannot clearly determine how it happened

in loco parentis
legal responsibility of a person or organization to take place of parent

In regards to patient refusal of care your paperwork should
include you rassessment finding

You yell “stop moving ill sit on you”

touching a person without consent

Good Samaritan Law
will not protect someone who expects ot be paid

decomposition of the body tissue

You acidently give her oral glucose even though her BG was high bu ther condition di dnot change
contact medical control and notify him or her of the error

The nose, chin, umbilicus and spine are ___ anatomic structures

Which of the following about the medulla oblungata is correct
it is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm

Trauma to the ____ lobe of the brain would likely cause visual disturbances

The air you breath is __ oxygen and exhale is ___ oxygen
21% 16%

Areas of spinal column in descending order are
cervical 7
thoracic 12
lumbar 5
sacral 5
coccyx 4

can this lady serve coffee

upper nonmoveable jawbones assist in formation of orbit

pressure in arteries when heart is at rest
diastolic blood pressure

most frequent casue of tenderness and pain in right lower abs is

sever deformity of upper arm near elbow he fractured

which about smooth muscle is correct
a person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle

The ___ is the mechanical weight bearing base of spinal column and the fused central posterior section of the pelvic gerdle

Elderly man has crushing chest pain and short of breath elevated BP and pulse what is best method to move
use an extremity lift with one EMT lifting the torso and the other the legs

proper lifting of gurney requires
keeping you rback upright and legs to lift

rapid extraction technique should take
one minute or less

infectious disease
medical condition caused by growth and spread of small harmful organisms in the body

vector borne
animals ticks lime disease

cridical incident stress managment shoudl occur in 24-72 hours of incident, normal reactions to abnormal situations

principle determinants of violence
-past history
-vocal activity
-physical activity
-least determinant: size

negligence all 4 must be present
-breach of duty

bone to bone

bone to muscle

peripheral nervous system: cables and nerve fibers
1. somatic: signals to voluntary
2. Autonomic
-sympathetic: fight or flight respirtory and heart up
-parasympatheic:rest and digest

Aerobic respiration
make energy with oxygen

anaerobic respiration
cells switch over when when O2 is limited and lactic acid will build up

-critical to diffusion
-our body is regulated by it
-blood 7.4
-CO2 is an acid

gray matter
-parietal is touch
-limbic system: reflex
thalamus: midline, regulates consiousneess and sleep, filters signals

produces hormones

little brain
-micromovements, writting

brain stem
controls all body functions
-regulates consciousness

reticular activating system
-in midbrain keeps you awake


This is NOT within a EMTs scope of practice
blood glucose monitoring

EMT gave wrong meds because didnt know what they were
knowledge based failure

Portion of repirtory system with no alveoli and doesnt participate in gas exchange
dead space
-includes bronchi and trachea

shooting at the mall and girl wants to now how her bf is but he is dead
let hospital staff relay info if possible

CO blocks O2 exchange bc
it binds to hemoglobin so O2 cant

the right atrium recieves ____ blood from _____
deoxygenated blood from the vena cavity

stroke volume x heart rate =
Cardiac Output CO

electrical impulse of heart should begin
sinoatrial node (then AV node)

when carrying spinal patient over rough terain use
basket strecher

this occurs when respirtory center of brain continues to send signals to breathing muscles after heart has stopped
agonal respirations

the backup systtem for respiratory control
hypoxic drive

epidermis contains
germinal cells (dead skin)

organ that eliminates toxic waste from body and controls balance of water and salt
kidneys (pH balance)

what carries deoxygenated blood
pulmonary arteries

What is manubrium and where is it located
top of sternum

causes the need to breath?
brain senses rise and fall in CO2 and sends message to pons to inhale/ exhale

tidal volume
amount of breath in 1 air of respirations

minute volume
amount of oxygen needed to maximize lung capacity

What quadrant is spleen found
Upper Left Quadrent

mostly plasma 55, rbc 44, white bc 1

suffix means producing

NaCl disappears in water this is

3 parts of cell
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

failure of sodium potassium pump
cell damage, sweeling and rupture

what is not a type of muscle tissur

Trauma to arm provider should assess

for cells to undergo aerobic metabolism they need
oxygen and glucose

when a healthy person has a sudden decrease in BP what will happen
CNS will directly stimulate sympathetic nervous system

take meds to lower heart rate to lower BP this impacts
cardiac output

froming of a blood clot

difference between diastolic and systolic pressure is
pulse pressure

Your shoulder is ___ to spine and ___ to umbilicus
lateral, superior

severe reaction to antigen rapid inflammation and system wide peripheral smooth muscle dialation
anaphylaxis (allergic reactions)

negative feedback controls homeostasis by
providing inhibitory effect

celll death

loss of blood from circulate

12 ribs attach to

breathing occurs as the result of
increase in CO2 which decreases the pH of CSF

O2 and CO2 pass across aveolar membrane in lungs by

bronchus divides into bronchioles and the ends of these are the alveoli

face down

responsible for body movements like writting or sewing

all necessary life functions are in
brain stem

Cadiac Output is affected by
stroke volume and heart rate

circulation of blood within an organor tissue to meet cells needs is

left side of heart recieves oxygenated blood from lungs through the
pulmonary veins

Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all except
– a reduction in tidal volume

tidal volume
normal amount of air displaced in normal breath

The ___ of the heart is the inferior portion the left ventricles

at rest normal adult should not exceed

Together the right and left lungs have how many lobes
5 (right has 3)

which layer of skin contains sweat oil hair nerves ?

which gland regulates function of all other endocrine glands

minute volume=
tidal volume x respirtory rate
rate (tidal-dead space)

key hormones of sympathetic nervous system
epinephrine and norepinephrine

what artery doesnt carry high oxygenated blood

heart muscle

large amounts of ATP is made when
cells function with enough O 2a

without anaerobic metabolism
perfussion to the body would suffer and cellular death would occur

parasympathetic nervous system
rest and digest

stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous systemwould result in
slow heart rate

diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during

by product of involuntary muscle contraction

function of upper airway
warms and humidifies inhaled air

voice box
-firm cartilaginous ring that forms: ciricoid cartilage

Bile is made in liver and stored in

inital formation of a blood clot

primary organ for absorbing products of digestion
small intestine

hemoglobin attaches to _____ and carries O2

waste of aerobic metabolism
carbon dioxide and water

respiration vs gas exchange
respiration is the process of gas exchange and ventilation is the movement of air between the lungs and the enviornment

movement of SOLIDS across a semipermiable membrane

primary stimulus to breath
level of CO2 in body

4 types of tissue
connective, muscle, nervous, epitheliel

What must happen so CO2 can be moved across aveolar membrane from blood stream to inhaled air in lungs
blood must be higher in carbon dioxide

primary EXTRAcellular cation in body


How does blood flow through the heart? Blood enters the heart through the inferior and superior vena cava into the right atrium. The blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The oxygenated blood flows through four pulmonary …

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You are dispatched to a residence for an 80-year old female who fell. When you arrive, you find the patient conscious, lying in a recumbent position on the floor in her living room. In addition to providing the appropriate treatment, …

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the cerebral cortex, limbic system, thalamus, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus make up the: forebrain chronic stress can cause which of the following? the release of cortisol, high levels of testosterone in the brain, persistent autonomic nervous system arousal WE WILL …

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