EMT Ch 24-26

You are assessing a conscious but confused hunter who became lost in the woods on a cold day. Your assessment shows him to have an open airway, adequate breathing, and a weak radial pulse. His skin is cold to the thouch and he is shivering. The EMT should recognize that the:
shivering is a protective means by which the body is attemping to warm itself.

Which one of the following best describes a patient suffering an environmental emergency?
Male patient who is intoxicated, has collapsed in the snow, and is complaining that he feels cold.

You have been called to a residence for a patient who is sick. On scene the family tells you that the patient is being treated for the “stomach flu” and has had a fever of 102F for the past two days. She has been taking all of the medications prescribed by her doctor but this evening became very “sweaty.” Assessment shows her to be stable with a pulse of 88, respirations 18, adequate blood pressure of 128/68 mmHg, and an oral temperature of 100.2F. Based on this, the EMT should recognize the:
the: patient’s body is cooling itself by transferring heat into the sweat, which is then evaporated into the air.

You have been in charge of creating a protocol that will direct care provided by EMS. In regards to a drowning patient who is severely hypothermic and in cardiac arrest, what would you propose?
Apply the AED and shock only once if indicated.

When moving a patient with severe generalized hypothermia, which one of the following instructions is most appropriate?
“I want everyone to take extra care in moving her very gently to the stretcher. We do not want her to go into cardiac arrest.”

A person is in a hot environment and his body is successfully compensating to off-load the excess heat. Which one of the following assessment findings best illustrates this process?
Warm and diaphoretic skin, elevated heart rate, increaseed respirations.

Which statement made by an EMT shows that he understands the care of a patient with a localized cold injury to the foot?
“While it is best to remove wet clothing from the patient, it is best to leave clothing that is frozen to the skin in place.”

A patient who is conscious and breathing has been pulled from a stream of cold water. To decrease her loss of heat via the mechanism of conduction, the EMT should immediately:
remove her wet clothing.

The EMT is correctly using a rope with a throw bag when he:
tosses the throw bag using an underhand motion toward the patient.

A teenage female has been removed from a pool. Your assessment reveals her to be responsive to painful stimuli with decorticate posturing. Her airway has water in it and she appears to be vomiting water. Breathing is agonal at eight breaths per minute. Her pulse is weak and slow. Which one of the following should you do immediately?
Suction water from the airway.

A child has been pulled from the pool after being submerged for less than 30 seconds. The child is crying and hyperventilating, as well as coughing up water and vomitus. The EMT should:
place the child on his side and perform a primary assessment.

You have been asked to present information on water safety and drowning to a community civil group. In regards to prevention, which one of the following points would you emphasize?
A signficant number of drownings are preventable due to the involvement of alcohol.

You are responding to a patient with a behavior problem. While en route, dispatch contacts you and states that there is a mental health delegate at the scene and you will be transporting the patient to the local psych hospital for treatment of her bipolar disorder. On scene which one of the following patient behaviors should help confirm that the patient is suffering from bipolar disorder?
Happy, excessive cheerful, and elated behavior.

You have been called for a young male patient who has been withdrawn. The patient appears depressed and when you ask him if he is thinking about hurting himself, he answers “yes.” The next question asked by the EMT should be:
“Do you have a plan?”

You arrive on scene to find that the police have subdued a violent man with a history of behavioral problems. They state they will put the patient on the stretcher. Which one of the following should cause the EMT to take immediate and corrective action?
Patient is placed and restrained in a prone position on the stretcher.

You arrive on the scene of a male patient who threatened to take pills to end his life. In talking with the patient, he informs you that he just got a new job that requires more of his time and his wife has been giving him a hard time about it. Tonight, he had enough and just made the comment because he was mad at her. He says that although he is still upset, he doesn’t plan to do anything drastic. Before talking further action, which one of the following facts about the patient should raise the EMT’s suspicion that he is indeed at a higher risk for suicide?
Unsuccessful attempt three years ago.

While transporting a patient with schizophrenia, he suddenly screams, “Do you see that snake? It is right next to you! Kill it!” How should you respond to this patient?
“I do not see a snake; I see a stethoscope. I do not doubt that you see a snake.”

Which one of the following patients is the EMT justified in restraining?
Patient threatening to kill his wife and trying to leave the scene.

According to family, a 24 -year-old female suddenly began to act in a hostile manner. After assessing her, you determine that she cannot remember her name or present location and is drooling. Based on these findings, you should suspect:
behavioral emergency resulting from a physical condition.

A group of EMT’s is preparing to restrain a large and violent patient. Which one of the following instructions given by the team leader is most appropriate?
“You distract him by coming at him from the front and the rest of us will come at him from different directions, each taking a separate limb.”

You are by the side of a young male patient with a history of behavior problems. Friends called 911 after the patient experienced several violent outbursts this evening. Which one of the following findings would cause the EMT to suspect a physical cause for this behavior, as opposed to a behavioral one?
Dilated pupils that are sluggish to react.

You are treating a male patient who is hypothermic. What should you do to decrease heat loss caused by radiation?
Wrap a towel around the patient’s head.

You have been chosen by the medical director to give a 15-minute presentation on cold-related emergencies to a local volunteer fire department. In preparing the talk, which one of the following points should you emphasize?
Emergency responders play a critical role in caring for the hypothermic patient since the most important phase of care occurs during the first 30 minutes.

Which one of the following statements about immersion hypothermia is false
“Immersion hypothermia typically does not occur until the water temperature is below 35°F”

A young boy complains of pain to his fingers after spending several hours outside riding a sled in cold winter temperatures. After ensuring he has no life-threatening conditions, you turn your attention to his hands and note that the fingers are cold to the touch. Suspecting that he is suffering from early or superficial cold injury, which one of the following signs or symptoms would help confirm this suspicion?
Skin on the fingers that is soft but numb

You are called for an elderly woman who has slipped on the ice. On arrival you find her supine on an icy sidewalk and responsive to painful stimuli with decorticate posturing (flexion). She has blood coming from a laceration on the back of her head and is breathing agonally at 4 times a minute. Which one of the following should you do immediately?
Perform the jaw-thrust airway maneuver.

Which one of the following signs or symptoms best indicates that the patient with cold skin is suffering from generalized hypothermia?
Heart rate of 48 beats per minute

A core temperature is most accurately assessed on a patient who has been exposed to cold temperatures by placing a:
medical-grade thermometer in the patient’s rectum.

When providing oxygen to a patient with a core temperature of 95 degrees and adequate breathing, which one of the following is best?
Oxygen that is warmed and humidified via non-rebreather mask

You have been called for an alert and oriented male patient whose friends state he spent several hours locked out of his house in the cold temperatures. Since the primary and secondary assessments have ruled out immediate life-threatening conditions, you have decided to rewarm the patient. Which one of the following would be most appropriate for this patient?
Hot packs to the patient’s chest, groin, and armpits

You have been called to a hunting camp for a patient with a severe localized cold injury to his hand and fingers. The patient is suffering no life-threatening conditions and you elect to rewarm the affected areas. Which one of the following would be appropriate for this patient?
Thaw and rewarm the tissue as quickly as possible

When one of the following statements about drowing is true?
Acutal drownings are responsible for only a small number of water related deaths.

A 49-year-old man was fishing in a stream of cold water when he became submerged after getting tangled in some hidden roots. The patient was pulled from the stream by friends after approximately 5 minutes of submersion. Your assessment reveals him to be responsive to painful stimuli and breathing 5 times per minute. His pulse is weak and rapid. Which of the following instructions should you give to the team of rescuers?
“Let’s move him into the warm ambulance as quickly as possible, and then cut off his clothes and cover him.”

You and several other EMTs are on location where a young female lost control of her car, and ended up in a shallow lake. The car is approximately 20 feet from shore and upright with the wheels touching the bottom of the lake. The woman is on the car’s roof stating that she is not hurt but is scared. Which of the following should the EMT do to rescue the patient?
Toss a rope with a throw bag to the patient.

The EMT shows she understands the concept of the mammalian diving reflex by stating:
“It may provide benefit to the patient by diverting oxygen-rich blood to the brain and heart.”

Which patient has the best chance for an optimal outcome after drowning?
34-year-old female submerged for 9 minutes in 39°F water

You are by the side of a young male patient who hit his head after diving from a hillside into a shallow lake. The patient is unresponsive and has a large hematoma to his chin. A paramedic asks you to apply painful stimuli to his arms and legs. You recognize that the paramedic wants you to assess for which one of the following?
Spinal injury

A 24-year-old intoxicated female patient was pulled from a pool by hotel personnel. The primary assessment reveals her airway to be open and her breathing adequate. Her radial pulse is strong but fast and she is persistently coughing. Vital signs are pulse 144, respirations 24, blood pressure 166/100; and SpO 2 93%. Which one of the following would be considered appropriate in the care of this patient?
Supplemental oxygen through a nasal cannula

While at a public pool obtaining a refusal from a patient who was stung by a bee, you hear screaming. Patrons are waving you over to a 13-year-old boy who hit the diving board with his head while diving and is now in the water motionless. The lifeguard is in the water and informs you that the patient’s eyes are open and he is breathing with a pulse, but not talking. Which one of the following should you do next?
Pass a cervical collar and long board into the water to immobilize the patient prior to extrication from the water.

A patient is in cardiac arrest after being submerged in a pond for 15 minutes. You note that his abdomen is greatly distended and it is very difficult to ventilate him. Which one of the following should you do next?
Place the patient on his side and firmly press on the abdomen.

You have been called to a local emergency department to transfer a male patient to a specialty facility for further care. The man was involved in a deep sea dive emergency and has been diagnosed with barotrauma. As such, which of the following should be expected?
Pain and deafness to the ears

A fisherman fell through the ice and was submerged in a lake for approximately 4 minutes before being pulled out by friends. You find the man to be unresponsive, not breathing, and without a pulse. Which one of the following should you do immediately?
Start cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

A diver has summoned 911 after he came to the surface and became short of breath and “itchy” all over. Additionally he complains of a headache. Assessment reveals a patent airway, adequate breathing, clear breath sounds, and the following vital signs: pulse 92, respirations 20, blood pressure 156/62, and SpO 2 at 96%. Proper care of this patient should include which one of the following?
High-concentration oxygen through a nonrebreather face mask

Which one of the following patient descriptions would the EMT classify assessing a behavioral emergency?
36 year old male with no known history who is hearing voices.

A patient states that she cannot leave the house to go to the hospital “because I am scared I will do something idiotic and lose it and then everyone will look at me and laugh.” She states she rarely leaves the house and the last time she did, she began to hyperventilate. This caused her to return home immediately. Based on this information, the EMT should recognize the patient as suffering from:

Given the research related to suicide, which one of the following patients should the EMT recognize as the highest risk for a suicidal action?
72-year-old widow who was just informed of a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

An EMT is transporting a restrained patient who is trying to spit on him. Which one of the following would the EMT be justified in doing?
Placing a surgical mask over the patient’s mouth

You are transporting a restrained 23-year-old female with a past history of sexual abuse and multiple behavioral problems. She is very upset with being restrained as well as going to the hospital. She informs you that she will take you to court for your actions. Consequently, you are concerned about false accusations. Which one of the following is your best protection?
Thoroughly document everything that happens on the call.

Which one of the following statements shows that the EMT has a good understanding of dealing with a behavioral emergency patient?
“It is okay to spend an extended amount of time on scene before transporting patients with behavioral problems.”

You have arrived on the scene where a depressed patient is crying in an upstairs bedroom. When assessing her, which one of the following must be done first?
Check a radial pulse.

The term “behavioral crisis” is MOST accurately defined as: any reaction that interferes with activities of daily living or is deemed unacceptable by others. General guidelines for managing a patient with a behavioral emergency include: being prepared to spend extra …

Which of the following patients would the EMT classify as having a behavioral emergency? 36-year-old male with no known history who is hearing voices You are by the side of a young male patient with a history of behavioral problems. …

Which one of the following best describes a patient suffering an environmental emergency? Intoxicated male patient who collapsed in the snow and is complaining that he feels cold You are assessing a conscious but confused hunter who became lost in …

Which of the following descriptions BEST characterizes deep​ frostbite? The tissue becomes frozen. Which of the following combinations of findings makes a patient with a potential​ with a related emergency the HIGHEST priority for​ transport? Hot skin and altered mental …

A 38-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia is reported by neighbors to be screaming and throwing things in his house. You are familiar with the patient and have cared for him in the past for unrelated problems. Law enforcement …

Which of the following findings does NOT indicate the potential for violence? A. Large physical body size B. Agitated or depressed C. Uncoordinated movements D. Withdrawn or detached A. Large physical body size When assessing a patient with bizarre behavior, …

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