EMS 202 Exam- Chapter 14: Pharmacology

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Epinephrine- brand name (3)
Adrenalin, epinephrine, Epi-Pen

Epinephrine- Class (2)
Natural catecholamine, sympathomimetic

Epinephrine- MofA (5)
1. Direct acting B1, B2, A1 agonist
2. Peripheral arterial constriction
3. Positive inotropic
4. Chronotropic and dromotropic actions
5. Blocks histamine release

Epinephrine- Clinical effects (1)
Bronchospasm/anaphylaxis- reverses signs and symptoms

Epinephrine- Indications (1)
Anaphylaxis

Epinephrine- Contraindications (3)
Allergy, none known for cardiac arrest, hypothermia (relative)

Epinephrine- Dosage (Adult-3, Peds-1)
Adult:
1. 0.1-0.3mg of 1:1,000 SC, IM or inject SL
2. 0.1-0.3mg of 1:10,000 IV
3. 0.3-0.5mg ET if cardiovascular collapse is present
(10 seconds or until empty)
Peds: 0.1mg/kg SC/IM 1:1,000 (max 0.35mg/dose)

Epinephrine- Onset, Peak, Duration
Seconds, minutes, several minutes

Epinephrine- Packaging
Preloaded (0.3-0.5mg 1:1,000 in 10mL NS probable

Epinephrine- Side effects (5)
Hypertension, tachycardia, agitation, anxiety, nausea/vomiting

Epinephrine- Adverse reactions (2)
Angina or even MI, ventricular dysrhythmias

Epinephrine- Special considerations (3)
1. Potentiates other sympathomimetrics
2. Reacts with alkaline solutions- sodium bicarbonate, don’t mix with alkaline agents
3. Degrades or negates effects in acidic environment

Nitroglycerin- Brand name (4)
Nitrostat, Nitrobid, Nitropaste, Tridil (IV only)

Nitroglycerin- Class (3)
Vasodilator, organic nitrate, antianginal

Nitroglycerin- MofA (6)
1. Smooth muscle relaxant acting on: Vascular, Uterine Bronchial, Intestinal smooth muscle
2. Reduces workload on heart- blood pooling
3. Arteriolar vasodilation
4. Coronary artery vasodilation
5. Increases blood flow to myocardium
6. Decreases myocardial O2 demand

Nitroglycerin- Indications (3)
Angina, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema (CHF)

Nitroglycerin- Contraindications (3)
Hypovolemia, hypotension, increased intra-cranial pressure

Nitroglycerin- Dosage (2 circumstances)
Chest pain: 0.4mg SL, MR- 5 minutes to max of 3 doses
Pulmonary edema: 0.4mg SL, MR- every 5 mins to max of 3 doses
systolic bp > 100

Nitroglycerin- Onset, Peak, Duration
Seconds, 5-10 mins, 10 mins

Nitroglycerin- Packaging
Bottles- 25 tablets, Spray bottle with 200 doses

Nitroglycerin- Side effects (5)
Hypotension, flushing, dizziness, headache, burning under tongue

Nitroglycerin- Adverse reactions (2)
1. Synergistic with other vasodilators
2. Potentially fatal hypotensive when taken within 48 hrs of erectile dysfunction med (viagra)

Nitroglycerin- Special considerations (3)
Light/heat sensitive, kept out of direct sunlight/heat, closely monitor vitals and monitor after administration

Activated charcoal- Brand name (3)
Charcola, actidose-aqua, insta-char

Activated charcoal- Class
Adsorbent

Activated charcoal- MofA
Pharmacological: Physical binding (adsorption) of toxins from GI tract

Activated charcoal- Clinical effects
Prevents/reduces systemic absorption of toxins

Activated charcoal- Indications (2)
Sole prehospital therapy of oral ingestion of toxic substances
Pre-lavage of oral ingestions of toxic substances

Activated charcoal- Contraindications (4)
1. Ingestion of caustics
2. Ingestion of hydrocarbons
3. Oral administration to comatose patient
4. Simultaneous administration of other oral drugs

Activated charcoal- Dosage
Adult: 1-2G/kg PO, OG, NG
Peds: 0.5-1G/kg PO, OG, NG

Activated charcoal- Onset, Peak, Duration
Immediate, N/A, until execreted

Activated charcoal- Packaging
Premixed slurry of 15, 25, 50 grams

Activated charcoal- Adverse reactions (2)
May provoke vomiting, may worsen overdosed induced Ileus

Activated charcoal- Special considerations (4)
1. Ineffective for iron, lithium, heavy metals, other ions
2. May reduce effectiveness of other treatments in pur acetaminophen OD’s
3. Charcoal bonds with whatever mixed with, flavored drinks reduces effectiveness
4. Should not contain sorbital

Albuterol sulfate- Brand name (3)
Albuterol, proventil, ventolin

Albuterol sulfate- Class (3)
Beta2 antagonist (some beta1), sympathomimetic, bronchodilator

Albuterol sulfate- MofA (3)
1. Relaxes bronchial s. muscle- bronchodilation
2. Relaxes vascular and uterine s. muscle
3. Decreases airway resistance

Albuterol sulfate- Indications
Treatment of bronchospasm

Albuterol sulfate- Contraindications (2)
Allergy, prior admin of other sympathomimetics

Albuterol sulfate- Dosage (Adult, 2 peds)
Adult: 2.5mg SVN, 1 spray MDI
Peds: 2.5mg SVN, 1 spray MDI
Peds (under 40lbs): Half dose w/ 1-1.5mL NS to make 2.5-3mL solution SVN
MR- by MD

Albuterol sulfate- Onset/Peak/Duration
5-15 mins, 30mins- 2hrs, 3-4 hrs

Albuterol sulfate- Packaging
SVN- 2.5mg/3.0mL NS
MDI- Multi-dose

Albuterol sulfate- Side effects (6)
Tachycardia, flushing, nausea, vomiting, tremors, nervousness

Albuterol sulfate- Adverse reactions (4)
Dysrhythmias, hyperglycemia, peripheral vasodilation, may cause paroxysmal bronchospasm

Albuterol sulfate- Special considerations (3)
Caution with diabetes, hyperthyroidism, cerebrovascular disease

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Brand name (5)
Aspirin, bufferin, bayer, ecotrin, accutrin

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Class (3)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic

Acetylsalicylic Acid- MofA (4)
1. Decreases synthesis of thrombaxanes
2. Inhibits platelet aggregation
3. Actos on hypothalamus to vasodilate peripheral vasculature
4. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase which results in decrease of prostaglandins

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Indications (1)
Chest pain with suspect cardiac etiology

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Contraindications (4)
Allergy, bleeding ulcers, suspected stroke, patient on blood thinners

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Dosage (Adult and child)
Adult: 325 mg
Peds: 324 mg (81mg x 4)

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Package
Multi-dose bottles of either ault or child size

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Onset/Duration
5-30 mins, 1-4 hrs

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Side effects (3)
Reflux, indigestion, nausea

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Adverse reaction (1)
May cause internal/further bleeding

Acetylsalicylic Acid- Special consideration
If patient has already taken, supplement up to 324mg

Oral glucose- Brand name (2)
Glutose, Insta-glucose

Oral glucose- Class
Monosaccharide carbohydrate

Oral glucose- MofA
After absorption, glucose is in tissues and theres a prompt increase in blood sugar

Oral glucose- Indications
Hypoglycemia

Oral glucose- Contraindications
Patient unable to swallow

Oral glucose- Dosage (Adult and Peds)
Adult: 15-45g PO
Peds: 5-45g PO

Oral glucose- Onset/Duration
10 minutes, under 1 hour

Oral glucose- Packaging
15 gram tubes

Oral glucose- Side effects
Nausea

Oral glucose- Adverse reactions
None

Oral glucose- Special considerations (4)
1. Give with caution to ALOC patients
2. Intact airway/ability to swallow
3. Follow directions
4. Buccal and sublingual no longer recommended

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy (Type of drug:) Nitroglycerin (Type of drug:) Vasodilator. (Mechanism of Action:) Nitroglycerin (Mechanism of Action:) Dilates coronary arteries and …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy 1) Oxygen 2) Oral Glucose 3) Activated Charcoal 4) Aspirin What are the 4 medications carried on the EMS …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Specific signs, symptoms, or circumstances under which it is appropriate to administer a drug to a patient Indications Spray …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Absorption Process by which medications travel through body tissue Contradiction Situation in which a drug should not be given …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is pharmacology? the study of drugs or medications and their effect on living systems Chemical name a description …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Action The therapeutic effect of a medication on the body Intended effect The effect that a medication is expected …

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