emergency preparedness

Emergency:
An unexpected event which places life and/or property in danger and requires an
immediate response through the use of routine community resources and procedures. Examples
would be a multi-automobile wreck, especially involving injury or death, and a fire caused by
lightning strike which spreads to other buildings.” Emergencies can be handled with local resources

Emergency Management:
An ongoing process to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from an incident that threatens life, property, operations, or the
environment

Emergency Operations Center (EOC):
A location from which centralized emergency
management can be performed. EOC facilities are established by an agency or jurisdiction to
coordinate the overall agency or jurisdictional response and support to an emergency.

6 functions: coordination, policy making, operations management, information gathering, public information, hosting visitors.

Risk
potential for an unwanted outcome resulting from an incident, event, or occurrence, as
determined by its likelihood and the associated consequences.

A measure of the probability of damage to life, property, and/or the environment, which
could occur if a hazard manifests itself, including the anticipated severity of consequences to
people.

Hazard:
a natural, technological or social phenomenon that poses a threat(harm,difficulty) to people
and their surroundings (in terms of both the natural and the built environment)

All Hazard:
A threat or an incident, natural or manmade, that warrants action to protect life,
property, the environment, and public health or safety, and to minimize disruptions of
government, social, or economic activities. It includes natural disasters, cyber incidents,
industrial accidents, pandemics, acts of terrorism, sabotage, and destructive criminal activity
targeting critical infrastructure. This also includes the effects climate change has on the threats
and hazards

Disaster:
An event that requires resources beyond the capability of a community and requires a
multiple agency response.

Civil Defense (CD):
1950s, Cold War, “civil government in emergency”, encouraged to build bomb shelters, civil defense directions first recognized face of emergency management in US. CD system requires the most efficient use of resources

Crisis:
Crises involve events and processes that carry severe threat,UNCERTAINTY, an unknown
outcome, VALUES, and URGENCY. Are historical points of reference, have variety of forms-terrorism, natural disasters, nuclear power plant accidents, riots. Can ruin reputations, economies. Requires rapid and decisive coordinated action

Crisis Management:
three key phases: 1) preparedness before a crisis; 2)response to limit damages during the crisis; and 3) feedback after the crisis.

(stern article) Broken down into 6 key challenges: sensemaking, decision making and coordination,
meaning-making (crisis communication), ending
(“accounting” and terminating the crisis), learning, and preparing

Preparedness cycle
essential activities for responding to an incident:
Plan, organize, equip, train, exercise, evaluate and improve

Preparedness as a leadership task (Stern Article)
Sub tasks:
-Organizing and selecting:organizational structures in place to enable effective functioning under crisis conditions
-Planning: planning for structured, well understood contingencies vs less familiar,structured
-Educating, Training, Exercising: essential in preparation for crisis management, ex:hands on practice
-Cultivating Vigilance: threats and hazards that have affected one community are thought to believe to unaffect another and often get dismissed. leaders MUST cultivate an “it could happen here’ mentality for all to secure funding to preparedness efforts ex:Boston Marathon bombing.
-Protecting preparedness: Protect budget

Resilience
ability to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for, withstand, and rapidly recover from disruption.
(Resiliency is defined as the capability of a system to maintaining its functions and
structure in the face of internal and external change and to degrade gracefully when it must)

NY DHSES and its role in Emergency Management

FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency. Formed 1979 by executive order of the President, combining Federal Programs that deal with all phases of emergency management, for disasters of all types into a single agency

Craig Fugate
FEMA administrator, helped revitalize planning efforts by “thinking bigger” about potential threats, encouraging leaders and emergency managers to plan and prepare for “maximum of maximums” scenarios

FEMA reservisits
type of Incident Management responder, hired under The Stafford Act as temporary, intermittent employees. can deploy to perform disaster field activities directly related to specific disasters, emergencies, projects, or activities of a non-continuous nature.

FEMA Qualification System
a performance-based qualification system that gives employees the opportunity to demonstrate and document their knowledge and skills in specific incident management positions. The qualification system standardizes the qualifications for positions across the Agency so that an employee who is qualified to perform in a given disaster position in one FEMA region will be prepared to perform in the same position in another region.
Candidate: an individual who holds a FEMA Qualification System qualification

FEMA online training system

James Lee Witt
Director of FEMA under Clinton administration from 1993-2001. Brought new leadership to a troubled agency, supported new tech and focused on mitigation and risk avoidance. Reforms inside and outside agency. Project Impact: Building Disaster Resistant Communities: identify risks and establish plan to reduce crisis.

DHS Reform and Implications for FEMA
michael Chertoff: six point agenda: resulted in all of the remaining preparedness capabilities in FEMA being moved to the Office of Preparedness.

A new FEMA office was to focus
exclusively on response and recover.

FEMA lost its status as an independent agency—and
its direct access to the president—when it was absorbed into the newly created Department of
Homeland Security (DHS).

FEMA personnel and funds, including money for preparedness and mitigation intended for
state and local agencies, were redistributed to support other higher priorities within DHS.

all hazards to terrorism

Post-Katrina Reforms
Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act 2008
Reorganizes FEMA-expands its statutory authority, imposes new conditions and requirements on the operations of the agency.

Requires that DHS reconsolidate all the emergency management functions into FEMA, elevates the status of FEMA within the department, protects the FEMA assets from reassignment within the DHS and gives FEMA enhanced organizational autonomy

Whole of Government
state, local, tribal, territorial, and federal partners

Whole Community Preparedness
residents, emergency management
practitioners, organizational and community leaders, and government officials can collectively
understand and assess the needs of their respective communities and determine the
best ways, to organize and strengthen their assets, capacities, and interests. By doing so, a
more effective path to societal security and resilience is built. A Whole Community approach attempts to engage the full capacity of the
private and nonprofit sectors, including businesses, faith-based and disability organizations,
and the general public, in conjunction with the participation of local, tribal, state,
territorial, and Federal governmental partners

Public, Private, non-Profit Partnership
whole of government/whole community

UN Disaster Risk Reduction Frameworks of Action (Hyogo/Sendai process)
2001 -to ensure coordination and synergies among disaster risk reduction activities of the United Nations system and regional organizations and activities in socio-economic and humanitarian fields. Adopted the Hyogo process in 2005-2015 then its successor Sendai in 2015-3030

Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015
first plan to explain, describe and detail the work that is required from all different sectors and actors to reduce disaster losses. It was developed and agreed on with the many partners needed to reduce disaster risk – governments, international agencies, disaster experts and many others – bringing them into a common system of coordination. its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 by building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. This means reducing loss of lives and social, economic, and environmental assets when hazards strike.

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders. 7 global target and 4 priorities for action

Stafford Act
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act signed 1988. Provides an orderly and continuing means of assistance by
the Federal Government to State and local governments in carrying out their responsibilities to alleviate the suffering and damage which result from disaster. Governor can request federal assistance under this Act and President can declare an emergency and provide Federal assistance.

PPD 8/Presidential Policy Directive
March 2011, Obama. aimed at strengthening the security and resilience of the United States through systematic preparation for the threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the nation, including acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters.

National Preparedness Goal and Core Capabilities
GOAL: A secure and resilient Nation with the capabilities required across the
whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and
recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.

Core capabilities are essential for the execution of each of the five mission areas: Prevention,
Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery.

Understanding the greatest risks to the Nation’s security and resilience is a critical step in
identifying the core capabilities

Planning
Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community, as appropriate, in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or tactical-level approaches to meet defined objectives.
(NATIONAL PREP GOAL DEF)

Plans describe how personnel, equipment, and other resources are used to support incident management response activities. Plans provide mechanisms and systems for setting
priorities, integrating multiple entities and functions, and ensuring that communications and other systems are available and integrated in support of a full spectrum of incident management
requirements

Maximum of Maximums
a large-scale, catastrophic event. necessary to plan for unexpected MOM event

Fantasy documents
generous and unrealistic assumptions of how organizations will perform in a crisis (rhetorical instruments that have political utility in reducing uncertainty) Just having a plan isn’t enough. ex: oil spill plans vs reality:never been a successful oil spill clean up. ex: large scale-evacuation plans look good on paper but may not have the actual resources to carry out this pan

oil spill reading

Response
The capabilities necessary to assist communities affected by an incident to recover
effectively

National Response Framework
a guide to how the Nation responds to all types of disasters and emergencies. It is built
on scalable, flexible, and adaptable concepts identified in the National Incident Management System(NIMS) to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation. The NRF describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.

National Incident Management System (NIMS) 2004 in response to 9/11
intended to standardize the emergency
management activities, structures, and processes of all relevant organizations within a
jurisdiction, within surrounding jurisdictions, and across all levels of government..

“provides a consistent nationwide template to enable all levels of
government, the private sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to work together
during an incident

these elements include: (1) developing a
single set of objectives; (2) using a collective, strategic approach; (3) improving information
flow and coordination; (4) creating common understanding of joint priorities and restrictions; (5)
ensuring that no agency’s legal authorities are compromised or neglected; and (6) optimizing the
combined efforts of all agencies under a single plan

NIMS represents a core set of doctrine, concepts,
principles, terminology, and organizational processes that enables effective, efficient, and
collaborative incident management

Preparedness component. Communications and information management component. Resource management component. Command and management component.

Emergency Support Functions (ESFs)
an effective way to bundle and manage
resources to deliver core capabilities

All ESFs support the common core capabilities-Planning, Public Information and
Warning, and Operational Coordination

The Federal ESFs bring together the capabilities of Federal departments and agencies and other
national-level assets

Incident Command System (function and five key cells)
enable effective and efficient domestic incident management by integrating a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure

five major functional areas: 1.command,
2,operations, 3.planning, 4.logistics, and 5.finance
and administration.

Authority and control are at the top/first, and the incident/area commander is the key
decision maker. The chain of command is intended to ensure that all
workers have an identified supervisor, each supervisor has a manageable
span of control, and that lower-level actors follow orders

Networks and Hierarchies (MOYNIHAN reading)

Sense-making
developing an adequate interpretation of what are
often complex, dynamic, and ambiguous situations. Th is entails developing not only a picture
of what is happening, but also an understanding of
the implications of the situation both from one’s
own vantage point and from that of other salient
stakeholders

Historical Analogy

Warning and the Warning Response Problem

Decision-making
crises tend to be experienced by leaders (and those who follow them) as a series of “what do we do now” problems triggered by the flow of events and need to be made in a timely fashion under very difficult conditions. (stern)

also a A Leader ‘ s Framework for Decision Making
leader must make decisions on simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic(fifth disorder).

Complexity

Adaptation and Improvisation

Animals in Disasters
Emergency operations plans should address:
Sheltering of Household Pets and Other Animals: Household pets and other animals may be sheltered adjacent to or near a human shelter,
Service Animals:
Dangerous Animals:

Crisis and Emergency Communication

Social Media and Emergency Prepardness
the 2007 Virginia Tech Shootings and Southern
California Wildfires

Research had shown that social media channels allowed for quick dissemination of information during a crisis as well as two way communication between members of the public and emergency management organizations

As an
early instance of this, following Hurricane Katrina, studies report how some New Orleans
residents went online in an attempt to locate friends and neighbors—with the hope of
reducing the geographical distance between their newly dispersed community

By providing community members with tools to engage in crisis preparedness,
response, and recovery, social media may have a role to play in building community
resilience—a measure of a community’s ability to respond to, withstand, and recover from
adverse situations

Social media have been shown to facilitate collective intelligence—where large, distributed
groups of people solve complex problems

Citizens may also provide geographically tagged localized and distributed reports—
known as volunteered geographic information—of crisis events through social media

An important contribution social media offer in times of crisis is their potential to enhance
situational awareness.Situational awareness, in the emergency domain, describes human
perceptions of the multifaceted circumstances around a crisis event that allow for
interpreting situations, making decisions, and predicting future outcomes. Obtaining
situational awareness is vital for those dealing with crisis because these situations are
unusually complex and poor decision making may lead to adverse consequences

Hurricane Andrew
August 1992: at the time of its occurrence the most destructive hurricane in United States history. It caused major damage in the Bahamas and Louisiana, but the greatest impact was in South Florida, where it made landfall at Category 5 hurricane. FEMA wasn’t
ready, but with Hurricane Andrew, it was not only FEMA that failed the people of Florida, but
the process and the system as well. FEMA seemed incapable of carrying out the essential government function of emergency management

Hurricane Katrina
August 2005: Under James Lee Witt, a Category 5 hurricane impacting New Orleans was considered one of the three possible worst-case disaster scenarios

was scene as a preventable catastrophe.

It impacted a broad geographic area stretching from Alabama to coastal Mississippi and southeast Louisiana,
an estimated 90,000 square miles. The storm impacted over 1.5 million people and displaced more than 800,000 citizens. The U.S. Coast Guard rescued over 24,273 people, and FEMA search and rescue teams rescued nearly 6600 persons. Federal government disaster relief expenses were expected to exceed $100 billion, and the insurance losses were expected to exceed $35 billion

It served to expose severe cracks in the nation’s emergency management system and its ability to respond to a catastrophic event. Government after-action reports, which are done after most disasters and media accounts, have judged the response a failure, and the recovery phase is considered to show the same level of incompetence

reading on preventable Catastrophe

Hurricane Sandy
In October of 2012, impacting a larger geographic area from the Carolinas up through the entire East Coast with major population centers affected

FEMA overall did good job with initial response in NYC

Sandy was the first large-scale disaster to completely apply the new National Disaster
Recovery Framework

September 11 Attacks
four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. DHS formed. Whole commuinty: boats taking people out of nyc

Joplin Tornado
2011 joplin, Missouri, late in the afternoon of Sunday, May 22

Number of casualties: 1,150

FEMA fared well in Joplin. FEMA had been conducting disaster response
and recovery in Missouri in the months prior to the Joplin tornado

issued an amendment to DR-1980: provided Individual Assistance, debris removal, and emergency protective measures
funding to individuals in Jasper and Newton counties. The Joplin tornado response offers
an opportunity to identify Whole Community contributions and solutions to a catastrophic
incident.

Ebola in West Africa and USA

Zika Virus

Virginia Tech
A shooter with two hand guns shot people in dorm, classroom, than took his own life. Due to campus assuming it was a domestic abuse incident, they did not shut down campus, caused further problems later on. Presents operational challenges and risk pervention

Active shooter what to do
Run, Hide, Fight

Follow definitions are from the national preparedness goal and core capabilities reading
Follow definitions are from the national preparedness goal and core capabilities reading

Planning (NATIONAL PREP GOAL) (Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, Recovery)
Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community, as appropriate, in
the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or tactical-level
approaches to meet defined objectives.

Public Information and Warning (NATIONAL PREP GOAL) (Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, Recovery)
Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole
community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and
linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any
threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance
being made available

Operational Coordination (Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, Recovery)
Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and
process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the
execution of core capabilities.

Intelligence and Information Sharing
(Prevention, Protection)
Information sharing is the ability to exchange intelligence,
information, data, or knowledge among government or private sector entities, as
appropriate.

Forensics and Attribution (Prevention)
Conduct forensic analysis and attribute terrorist acts (including the means and
methods of terrorism) to their source, to include forensic analysis as well as
attribution for an attack and for the preparation for an attack in an effort to
prevent initial or follow-on acts and/or swiftly develop counter-options

Interdiction and Disruption (Prevention, Protection)
Delay, divert, intercept, halt, apprehend, or secure threats and/or hazards.

Screening, Search, and Detection (Prevention, Protection)
Identify, discover, or locate threats and/or hazards through active and passive
surveillance and search procedures. EXAMPLE:sensor technologies, physical investigation

Access Control and Identity Verification
(Protection)
Apply and support necessary physical, technological, and cyber measures to
control admittance to critical locations and systems.

Cybersecurity (Protection)
Protect (and, if needed, restore) electronic communications systems, information,
and services from damage, unauthorized use, and exploitation.

Physical Protective Measures (Protection)
Implement and maintain risk-informed countermeasures, and policies protecting
people, borders, structures, materials, products, and systems associated with
key operational activities and critical infrastructure sectors.

Risk Management for Protection Programs and Activities (Protection)
Identify, assess, and prioritize risks to inform Protection activities,
countermeasures, and investments.

Supply Chain Integrity and Security (Protection)
Strengthen the security and resilience of the supply chain.

Community Resilience (Mitigation)
Enable the recognition, understanding, communication of, and planning for risk
and empower individuals and communities to make informed risk management
decisions necessary to adapt to, withstand, and quickly recover from future
incidents.

Long-term Vulnerability Reduction (Mitigation)
Build and sustain resilient systems, communities, and critical infrastructure and
key resources lifelines so as to reduce their vulnerability to natural, technological,
and human-caused threats and hazards by lessening the likelihood, severity, and
duration of the adverse consequences.

Risk and Disaster Resilience Assessment (Mitigation)
Resilience Assessment Assess risk and disaster resilience so that decision makers, responders, and
community members can take informed action to reduce their entity’s risk and
increase their resilience.

Threats and Hazards Identification (Mitigation)
Identify the threats and hazards that occur in the geographic area; determine the
frequency and magnitude; and incorporate this into analysis and planning
processes so as to clearly understand the needs of a community or entity.

Critical Transportation (Response)
Provide transportation (including infrastructure access and accessible
transportation services) for response priority objectives, including the evacuation
of people and animals, and the delivery of vital response personnel, equipment,
and services into the affected areas.

Environmental Response/Health and Safety (Response)
Conduct appropriate measures to ensure the protection of the health and safety
of the public and workers, as well as the environment, from all-hazards in support
of responder operations and the affected communities.

Fatality Management Services
(Response)
Provide fatality management services, including decedent remains recovery and
victim identification, working with local, state, tribal, territorial, insular area, and
Federal authorities to provide mortuary processes, temporary storage or
permanent internment solutions, sharing information with mass care services for
the purpose of reunifying family members and caregivers with missing
persons/remains, and providing counseling to the bereaved.

Fire Management and Suppression (Response)
Provide structural, wildland, and specialized firefighting capabilities to manage
and suppress fires of all types, kinds, and complexities while protecting the lives,
property, and the environment in the affected area

Infrastructure Systems (Response, Recovery)
Stabilize critical infrastructure functions, minimize health and safety threats, and
efficiently restore and revitalize systems and services to support a viable,
resilient community.

Logistics and Supply Chain Management (Response)
Deliver essential commodities, equipment, and services in support of impacted
communities and survivors, to include emergency power and fuel support, as
well as the coordination of access to community staples. Synchronize logistics
capabilities and enable the restoration of impacted supply chains.

Mass Care Services (Response)
Provide life-sustaining and human services to the affected population, to include
hydration, feeding, sheltering, temporary housing, evacuee support, reunification,
and distribution of emergency supplies.

Mass Search and Rescue Operations (Response)
Deliver traditional and atypical search and rescue capabilities, including
personnel, services, animals, and assets to survivors in need, with the goal of
saving the greatest number of endangered lives in the shortest time possible.

On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement (Response)
Ensure a safe and secure environment through law enforcement and related
security and protection operations for people and communities located within
affected areas and also for response personnel engaged in lifesaving and lifesustaining
operations.

Operational Communications (Response)
Ensure the capacity for timely communications in support of security, situational
awareness, and operations by any and all means available, among and between
affected communities in the impact area and all response forces.

Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services
(Response)
Provide lifesaving medical treatment via Emergency Medical Services and
related operations and avoid additional disease and injury by providing targeted
public health, medical, and behavioral health support, and products to all affected
populations.

Situational Assessment (Response)
Provide all decision makers with decision-relevant information regarding the
nature and extent of the hazard, any cascading effects, and the status of the
response.

Economic Recovery (Recovery)
Return economic and business activities (including food and agriculture) to a
healthy state and develop new business and employment opportunities that
result in an economically viable community

Health and Social Services (Recovery)
Restore and improve health and social services capabilities and networks to
promote the resilience, independence, health (including behavioral health), and
well-being of the whole community.

Housing (Recovery)
Implement housing solutions that effectively support the needs of the whole
community and contribute to its sustainability and resilience.

Natural and Cultural Resources (Recovery)
Protect natural and cultural resources and historic properties through
appropriate planning, mitigation, response, and recovery actions to preserve,
conserve, rehabilitate, and restore them consistent with post-disaster
community priorities and best practices and in compliance with applicable
environmental and historic preservation laws and executive orders.

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