immediate response through the use of routine community resources and procedures. Examples
would be a multi-automobile wreck, especially involving injury or death, and a fire caused by
lightning strike which spreads to other buildings.” Emergencies can be handled with local resources
management can be performed. EOC facilities are established by an agency or jurisdiction to
coordinate the overall agency or jurisdictional response and support to an emergency.
6 functions: coordination, policy making, operations management, information gathering, public information, hosting visitors.
determined by its likelihood and the associated consequences.
A measure of the probability of damage to life, property, and/or the environment, which
could occur if a hazard manifests itself, including the anticipated severity of consequences to
and their surroundings (in terms of both the natural and the built environment)
property, the environment, and public health or safety, and to minimize disruptions of
government, social, or economic activities. It includes natural disasters, cyber incidents,
industrial accidents, pandemics, acts of terrorism, sabotage, and destructive criminal activity
targeting critical infrastructure. This also includes the effects climate change has on the threats
multiple agency response.
outcome, VALUES, and URGENCY. Are historical points of reference, have variety of forms-terrorism, natural disasters, nuclear power plant accidents, riots. Can ruin reputations, economies. Requires rapid and decisive coordinated action
(stern article) Broken down into 6 key challenges: sensemaking, decision making and coordination,
meaning-making (crisis communication), ending
(“accounting” and terminating the crisis), learning, and preparing
Plan, organize, equip, train, exercise, evaluate and improve
-Organizing and selecting:organizational structures in place to enable effective functioning under crisis conditions
-Planning: planning for structured, well understood contingencies vs less familiar,structured
-Educating, Training, Exercising: essential in preparation for crisis management, ex:hands on practice
-Cultivating Vigilance: threats and hazards that have affected one community are thought to believe to unaffect another and often get dismissed. leaders MUST cultivate an “it could happen here’ mentality for all to secure funding to preparedness efforts ex:Boston Marathon bombing.
-Protecting preparedness: Protect budget
(Resiliency is defined as the capability of a system to maintaining its functions and
structure in the face of internal and external change and to degrade gracefully when it must)
Candidate: an individual who holds a FEMA Qualification System qualification
A new FEMA office was to focus
exclusively on response and recover.
FEMA lost its status as an independent agency—and
its direct access to the president—when it was absorbed into the newly created Department of
Homeland Security (DHS).
FEMA personnel and funds, including money for preparedness and mitigation intended for
state and local agencies, were redistributed to support other higher priorities within DHS.
all hazards to terrorism
Reorganizes FEMA-expands its statutory authority, imposes new conditions and requirements on the operations of the agency.
Requires that DHS reconsolidate all the emergency management functions into FEMA, elevates the status of FEMA within the department, protects the FEMA assets from reassignment within the DHS and gives FEMA enhanced organizational autonomy
practitioners, organizational and community leaders, and government officials can collectively
understand and assess the needs of their respective communities and determine the
best ways, to organize and strengthen their assets, capacities, and interests. By doing so, a
more effective path to societal security and resilience is built. A Whole Community approach attempts to engage the full capacity of the
private and nonprofit sectors, including businesses, faith-based and disability organizations,
and the general public, in conjunction with the participation of local, tribal, state,
territorial, and Federal governmental partners
the Federal Government to State and local governments in carrying out their responsibilities to alleviate the suffering and damage which result from disaster. Governor can request federal assistance under this Act and President can declare an emergency and provide Federal assistance.
whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and
recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.
Core capabilities are essential for the execution of each of the five mission areas: Prevention,
Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery.
Understanding the greatest risks to the Nation’s security and resilience is a critical step in
identifying the core capabilities
(NATIONAL PREP GOAL DEF)
Plans describe how personnel, equipment, and other resources are used to support incident management response activities. Plans provide mechanisms and systems for setting
priorities, integrating multiple entities and functions, and ensuring that communications and other systems are available and integrated in support of a full spectrum of incident management
oil spill reading
on scalable, flexible, and adaptable concepts identified in the National Incident Management System(NIMS) to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation. The NRF describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.
management activities, structures, and processes of all relevant organizations within a
jurisdiction, within surrounding jurisdictions, and across all levels of government..
“provides a consistent nationwide template to enable all levels of
government, the private sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to work together
during an incident
these elements include: (1) developing a
single set of objectives; (2) using a collective, strategic approach; (3) improving information
flow and coordination; (4) creating common understanding of joint priorities and restrictions; (5)
ensuring that no agency’s legal authorities are compromised or neglected; and (6) optimizing the
combined efforts of all agencies under a single plan
NIMS represents a core set of doctrine, concepts,
principles, terminology, and organizational processes that enables effective, efficient, and
collaborative incident management
Preparedness component. Communications and information management component. Resource management component. Command and management component.
resources to deliver core capabilities
All ESFs support the common core capabilities-Planning, Public Information and
Warning, and Operational Coordination
The Federal ESFs bring together the capabilities of Federal departments and agencies and other
five major functional areas: 1.command,
2,operations, 3.planning, 4.logistics, and 5.finance
Authority and control are at the top/first, and the incident/area commander is the key
decision maker. The chain of command is intended to ensure that all
workers have an identified supervisor, each supervisor has a manageable
span of control, and that lower-level actors follow orders
often complex, dynamic, and ambiguous situations. Th is entails developing not only a picture
of what is happening, but also an understanding of
the implications of the situation both from one’s
own vantage point and from that of other salient
also a A Leader ‘ s Framework for Decision Making
leader must make decisions on simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic(fifth disorder).
Sheltering of Household Pets and Other Animals: Household pets and other animals may be sheltered adjacent to or near a human shelter,
Research had shown that social media channels allowed for quick dissemination of information during a crisis as well as two way communication between members of the public and emergency management organizations
early instance of this, following Hurricane Katrina, studies report how some New Orleans
residents went online in an attempt to locate friends and neighbors—with the hope of
reducing the geographical distance between their newly dispersed community
By providing community members with tools to engage in crisis preparedness,
response, and recovery, social media may have a role to play in building community
resilience—a measure of a community’s ability to respond to, withstand, and recover from
Social media have been shown to facilitate collective intelligence—where large, distributed
groups of people solve complex problems
Citizens may also provide geographically tagged localized and distributed reports—
known as volunteered geographic information—of crisis events through social media
An important contribution social media offer in times of crisis is their potential to enhance
situational awareness.Situational awareness, in the emergency domain, describes human
perceptions of the multifaceted circumstances around a crisis event that allow for
interpreting situations, making decisions, and predicting future outcomes. Obtaining
situational awareness is vital for those dealing with crisis because these situations are
unusually complex and poor decision making may lead to adverse consequences
ready, but with Hurricane Andrew, it was not only FEMA that failed the people of Florida, but
the process and the system as well. FEMA seemed incapable of carrying out the essential government function of emergency management
was scene as a preventable catastrophe.
It impacted a broad geographic area stretching from Alabama to coastal Mississippi and southeast Louisiana,
an estimated 90,000 square miles. The storm impacted over 1.5 million people and displaced more than 800,000 citizens. The U.S. Coast Guard rescued over 24,273 people, and FEMA search and rescue teams rescued nearly 6600 persons. Federal government disaster relief expenses were expected to exceed $100 billion, and the insurance losses were expected to exceed $35 billion
It served to expose severe cracks in the nation’s emergency management system and its ability to respond to a catastrophic event. Government after-action reports, which are done after most disasters and media accounts, have judged the response a failure, and the recovery phase is considered to show the same level of incompetence
reading on preventable Catastrophe
FEMA overall did good job with initial response in NYC
Sandy was the first large-scale disaster to completely apply the new National Disaster
Number of casualties: 1,150
FEMA fared well in Joplin. FEMA had been conducting disaster response
and recovery in Missouri in the months prior to the Joplin tornado
issued an amendment to DR-1980: provided Individual Assistance, debris removal, and emergency protective measures
funding to individuals in Jasper and Newton counties. The Joplin tornado response offers
an opportunity to identify Whole Community contributions and solutions to a catastrophic
the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or tactical-level
approaches to meet defined objectives.
community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and
linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any
threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance
being made available
process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the
execution of core capabilities.
information, data, or knowledge among government or private sector entities, as
methods of terrorism) to their source, to include forensic analysis as well as
attribution for an attack and for the preparation for an attack in an effort to
prevent initial or follow-on acts and/or swiftly develop counter-options
surveillance and search procedures. EXAMPLE:sensor technologies, physical investigation
control admittance to critical locations and systems.
and services from damage, unauthorized use, and exploitation.
people, borders, structures, materials, products, and systems associated with
key operational activities and critical infrastructure sectors.
countermeasures, and investments.
and empower individuals and communities to make informed risk management
decisions necessary to adapt to, withstand, and quickly recover from future
key resources lifelines so as to reduce their vulnerability to natural, technological,
and human-caused threats and hazards by lessening the likelihood, severity, and
duration of the adverse consequences.
community members can take informed action to reduce their entity’s risk and
increase their resilience.
frequency and magnitude; and incorporate this into analysis and planning
processes so as to clearly understand the needs of a community or entity.
transportation services) for response priority objectives, including the evacuation
of people and animals, and the delivery of vital response personnel, equipment,
and services into the affected areas.
of the public and workers, as well as the environment, from all-hazards in support
of responder operations and the affected communities.
victim identification, working with local, state, tribal, territorial, insular area, and
Federal authorities to provide mortuary processes, temporary storage or
permanent internment solutions, sharing information with mass care services for
the purpose of reunifying family members and caregivers with missing
persons/remains, and providing counseling to the bereaved.
and suppress fires of all types, kinds, and complexities while protecting the lives,
property, and the environment in the affected area
efficiently restore and revitalize systems and services to support a viable,
communities and survivors, to include emergency power and fuel support, as
well as the coordination of access to community staples. Synchronize logistics
capabilities and enable the restoration of impacted supply chains.
hydration, feeding, sheltering, temporary housing, evacuee support, reunification,
and distribution of emergency supplies.
personnel, services, animals, and assets to survivors in need, with the goal of
saving the greatest number of endangered lives in the shortest time possible.
security and protection operations for people and communities located within
affected areas and also for response personnel engaged in lifesaving and lifesustaining
awareness, and operations by any and all means available, among and between
affected communities in the impact area and all response forces.
related operations and avoid additional disease and injury by providing targeted
public health, medical, and behavioral health support, and products to all affected
nature and extent of the hazard, any cascading effects, and the status of the
healthy state and develop new business and employment opportunities that
result in an economically viable community
promote the resilience, independence, health (including behavioral health), and
well-being of the whole community.
community and contribute to its sustainability and resilience.
appropriate planning, mitigation, response, and recovery actions to preserve,
conserve, rehabilitate, and restore them consistent with post-disaster
community priorities and best practices and in compliance with applicable
environmental and historic preservation laws and executive orders.