Emergency Preparedness and Assisting with Medical Emergencies. (Ch 36)

Arrhythmia
An abnormality or irregularity in the heart rhythm.

Asystole
The absence of a heartbeat.

Cyanosis
A blue coloration of the mucous membranes and body extremities caused by lack of oxygen.

Ecchymosis
A hemorrhagic skin discoloration commonly called “bruising”

Emetic
A substance that causes vomiting.

Fibrillation
Rapid, Random, ineffective contractions of the heart.

Hematuria
Blood in the urine.

Idiopathic
Pertaining to a condition or disease that has no known cause.

Mediastinum
The space in the center of the chest under the sternum.

Myocardium
The muscular lining of the heart.

Necrosis
The death of cells or tissue.

Photophobia
An abnormal sensitivity to light.

Polydipsia
Excessive thirst.

Thrombolytics
Agents that dissolve blood clots.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Temporary neurologic syptoms caused by a gradual or partial occlusion of a cerbral blood vessel.

Dyspnea
Shortness of breath.

Polyuria
frequent urination.

what does the acronym for RACE stand for
Rescue
Activate Alarm
Confine Fire
Extinguish

distinguish between a 1, 2, 3rd degree burn
The differences between 1st 2nd and 3rd degree burns are based on the severity of the burn.

1. A first-degree burn has an effect on the skin’s outermost layer.

2. Dermis and epidermis are affected by second-degree burns, and these cause blisters.

3. The third degree burn has an effect on the entire skin, oil glands, and sweat glands.

if a pt is having a seizure what are the first 3 steps
1 protect head
2 clear area
3 tilt head to side

if you have an unresponsive pt what are the steps
1 check if scene is safe
2 have someone call 911
3 check airway
4 cpr

what are the first questions poison control is going to ask you
1 victims weight and age
2 how much was taken
3 what was the poison taken

what does the acronym RICE stand for
Rest
Ice
Compress
Elevate

name the 7 types of shock
1 anaphylactic
2 insulin
3 psychogenic
4 hypovolemic
5 cardiogenic
6 neurogenic
7 septic

what are the 4 main signs and symptoms of an MI
1 heart rate goes up
2 diaphoresis (sweating)
3 chest pain
4 cyanosis

what is the rule of nine
assessment tool that helps calculate the amount of burned tissue. the body is divided into areas approximately equal to 9% of the total body surface area.
the affected regions are combined to estimate the total percentage burned.

go outside and you have no clue whats going on what are the 3 steps in an emergency
1 scene needs to be safe
2 ask if they need help if yes
3 start cpr

out of the 4 symptoms of MI which do women NOT have
women normally dont get chest pain

if there is a diabetic emergency and ur not sure whats going on what do you do
give sugar

what law protects you
good samaritin law

what is the good samaritin law
volunteer at scene of accident are given immunity to liability for any civil damages resulting from rendering emergency care. passed in 1959

what does AED treat
aarhythmia
1 do not use adult AED on child under 8
2 skin needs to be dry
3 dont touch any metal

what are the signs and symptoms for shock
1 pulse rate goes up
2 blood pressure goes down
3 pallor
4 skin is cool and clammy
5 nausea
6 thirsty
7 restlessness

when do you apply a turnicket
only when limb is going to be amputated or help is hours away

if there is an office emergency what is the 1st thing you do
call physician

your neighbor brings a child with impaled object whats the first thing you do
do not remove object but stabalize, call 911

AED
automated external defibrillator

strain
injuries to the muscle and its tendons
*this injury may damage surrounding soft tissue, blood vessels, and nerby nerves.

sprains
tears of the ligaments that support the joint
*this injury may damage surrounding soft tissue, blood vessels, and nerby nerves.

anaphylactic shock
severe allergy reaction

insulin shock
severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes

Psychogenic or mental shock
Shock caused by overwhelming emotional factors. Sudden dilation of blood vessels results in fainting because of lack of blood supply to the brain.

Hypovolemic or hemorrhagic shock
shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss

cardiogenic shock
shock caused by cardiac arrest

Neurogenic shock
type of shock commen in cases of damage to the brain or spinal cord that results in vasodilation and relative hypovolemia

Septic shock
systemic infection

Heart attack symptoms
1 chest pain
2 chest heaviness
3 pale skin
4 weak pulse
5 nausea
6 vomitting
7 pain radiating to left arm
8 indigestion
9 short of breath
9 sweating

CPR
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation 30 thrusts 2 breaths unassisted 15 thrusts 2 breaths assisted

heat stroke
a serious condition that occurs when the body’s inner temperature rises so fast that the body cannot cool itself

contusion
an injury that doesn’t break the skin but results in some discoloration BRUISE

emergency supplies consist of a properly equipped___________?
crash cart

what does the CDC stand for
center for disease control

Cica Trix
Early scar tissue that appears pale, and firm.

digoxin is used to treat congestive heart failure and____________?
arrhythmia

nitroglycerin is a __________?
vasodialator

a common used vasoconstrictor that controls hemorrhage, relieves acute asthma attacks, treats anaphylactic reactions and shock is ___?
epinephrine

t/f
if a pt calls with a life-treatening emergency, it is acceptable to put the pt on hold while you call 911
false

t/f
for chocking, a finger sweep should not be used on infants or when the obstruction cannot be seen
true

t/f
for a stroke, administering thrombolytics within 3 hrs of the onset symptoms can help prevent permanent brain damage
true

t/f
suspected poisoning can always be treated by administering syrup of ipecac to induce vomitting
false

an ABC fire extinguisher is effective against what type of fires?
paper, flammable, liquid, and electrical

what is used to resuscitate an individual who has suffered cardiac arrest?
AED

list symptoms of dehydration
1 vertigo
2 dark yellow urine or no urine output for 8-10 hrs
3 extreme thirst
4 lethargic or confused
5 abdominal or muscle cramps

abrasion
scrape on the surface of the skin

avulsion
injury in which the tissue is torn away

how do you remove a tick
with tweezers

S&S of MI in women
1 back pain or aching and throbbing in the biceps or forearms
2 shortness of breath
3 clammy perspiration
4 vertigo
5 syncope
6 edema in ankles &/or lower legs
7 fluttering heartbeat or tachycardia
8 gastric upset
9 feeling heaviness or fullness of meadiastinum

symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning
red cherry cheecks

frost bite
actual freezing of tissue, prolonged exposure of the skin causes damage similar to a burn. tissue may appear gray or white, may be swollen, have clear blisters or in full-thickeness frostbite may show necrosis, blackened area and may lose body part

S&S of hypothermia
shivering, numbness, apathy, and loss of conciousness

STR
S-smile
T-tongue, talk
R-raise their arms
helps you identify if pt is having a TIA or CVA

FB
foreign body

what is flourescein
strip/ yellow dye

irrigate
eye wash station

CVA
cerebrovascular accident

what is a precurser to a CVA?
TIA

pedimol seizure (epilepsy)
Hard to notice
No aura
Abrupt onset
Brief duration
Prompt recovery

grand mal seizure (epilepsy)
violent muscle contractions
loss of conciousness

syncope
fainting

what is the medical assistant’s role in performing emergency procedures?
-perform only the medical procedures in your scope of practice that you have been trained for
-if the emergency occurs in the facility notify the phycisician
-if a physician cannot be located immediatetly call 911

what is the universal distress sign in choking
a victim will clutch neck between thumb and index finger

what should you do if a pt says “i feel like im going to faint”
1 place pt in a supine position
2 loosen tight clothing
3 open airway
4 place cold washcloth on their forehead

what is the greatest danger for a pt that is going to faint
pt may hit their head upon fainting

describe the fundamental principles for evacuation of a healthcare facility
1 an emergency coordinator should be assigned
2 exit maps should be posted
3

emergency supplies should be kept in?
an easily accessible place that is known to all personnel

when should emergency supplies be inventoried?
regularly

what should you remember about medications, sterile supplies, and oxygen in the crash cart?
the expiration dates and supplies must be checked either weekly or monthly, along with the status of oxygen tanks

when do you order a new oxygen tank for the crash cart?
when oxygen is down to a quarter of a tank

what are the general rules when faced with an emergency
1 stay calm and reassure the pt and make them feel as comfortable as possible
2 assess the situation to determine the nature of the emergency
3 obtain as much information as possible to determine the appropriate action
4 immediatley refer any concerns to the office supervisor or physician

Arrhythmia An abnormality or irregularity in the heart rhythm Asystole The absence of a heart beat WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Cyanosis Blue coloration of the …

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Automated external defibrillator (AED) A computerized defibrillator programmed to recognize lethal heart rhythms and deliver an electrical shock to restore a normal rhythm Bioterrorism The intentional release of a biologic agent with the intent to harm individuals WE WILL WRITE …

what is another name for a heart attack? a myocardial infarction what is the difference between a heart attack and a cardiac arrest? heart attack: blood blockage in artery, no blood in heart quadrant and no oxygen and cells die …

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