Objectives of first aid:
1. Alleviate pain and suffering.
2. Prevent added/further injury.
3. Prolong life or save limb.
Hindrances in giving first aid:
1. Unfavorable surroundings.
2. The presence of crowds.
3. Pressure from victim or relatives.
Roles of first aid
1. It is a bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician.
2. It ends when the service of the physician begins.
3. It is not intended to compete with the treatment done by the physician.
Characteristics of a good first aider
G – gentle
G – good judgment
O – observant
R – resourceful
T – tactful
E – emphatic
C –common sense
C – cheerful
EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES
I. SCENE SURVEY
* “A first aider will never be a good first aider if he himself becomes the vict SCENE SAFETY (QUESTIONS ASKED?)
* Is the scene safe?
* What happened?
* How many people are injured?
FIRST AIDER’S SAFETY
BSIP – Body Substance Isolation Precaution
PPE – Personal protective Equipments
– Introduce yourself as a trained first aider to the conscious victim or bystanders and immediately ask permission if you can help!
– Check for responsiveness by tapping the shoulders 2x while saying the victim’s name or ask the victim “HEY! HEY! ARE YOU OK?”
II. ACTIVATE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE (AMA ) AND TRANSFER FACILITY
EMS – EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
* Information to be relayed in calling medical assistance * What happened?
* Number of victims
* Extent of injury and first aid given
* THE PHONE NUMBER FROM WHERE YOU ARE CALLING
* Person who activated EMS must identify himself and drop the phone last.
III. PRIMARY SURVEY (ABC’s OF LIFE)
* Head-tilt Chin-lift
* Jaw-thrust Maneuver
LLF – look, listen, and feel (5 seconds)
LOOK – Rise and fall of the chest
LISTEN an FEEL – Air coming out of the victims mouth and nose.
Carotid pulse – adult and child
Brachial pulse – infant
IV. SECONDARY SURVEY
IMPORTANCE OF YOUR SECONDARY SURVEY
2. Patient monitoring
3. Legal purposes
4. Pre-hospital report
A. HEAD-TO-TOE ASSESSMENT
* (DCAPBTLS – TRAUMA CASES ONLY)
D – deformity
C – Contusions
A – abrasions
P – puncture
B – burns
T – tenderness (pain upon palpation)
L – lacerations
S – swelling
B. IS THE VICTIM IN PAIN?
* (OPQRST – MEDICAL CASES ONLY – PAIN)
O – onset of pain
P – provocative/palliative factors
Q – quality of pain
R – radiation
S – severity (pain scale 0 -10)
T – timing
C. HISTORY TAKING (SAMPLE)
(FOR CONSCIOUS VICTIM ONLY – MEDICAL AND TRAUMA).
S – signs and symptoms
A – allergies (food and drug)
M – medications
P – past/present medical history (hospitalization)
L – last meal (surgery)
E – events leading to injury
D. VITAL SIGNS.