Emergency Management

The first incidence of federal aid to a local community
1803- new hampshire fire
congressional act passed to provide financial aid to the town

Establishment of Civil Defense
a.During cold war: civil defense programs in communities to encourage bomb shelters to protect from nuclear attacks
b.1950- Federal Civil Defense Administration- technical assistance to community civil defense directors
c.Department of Defense- provide mobilization of resources, stock piling, emergency preparedness function

establishment of FEMA
a. Established by Jimmy Carter, 1979
b. Reorganization Plan to consolidate preparedness/mitigation/response activities into one federal agency
c. Transferred parts of govt to FEMA (ex: National Fire Prevention Control Admin)

First FEMA director
John Macy- head of Office of Personnel Management

establishment of DHS
2002- President Bush
After 9/11 terrorist attacks

National Flood Insurance Program
1968- after Hurricane Betsy
Federally subsidize insurance because it was too expensive for the average citizen

The Witt Revolution
James Lee Witt: first director of FEMA with emergency management experience
-Arkansas state director of emergency management
-Appointed by Bill Clinton
Mandate: restore trust with American people that the govt would be there in crisis

Project Impact
-Building disaster resistant communities
-Designed to encourage communities to build mitigation features (pumping systems, strengthening schools, tornado shelters, etc.)

Hazard
a source of danger that may or may not lead to an emergency or disaster and is named after the emergency/disaster that could be so precipitated
-Something doesn’t have to happen
-Ex: lighting strike, snow storm

Risk
measure of the likelihood that a hazard will manifest into an actual emergency or disaster event and the consequences should that event occur
-Susceptibility to hazard occurring- death, injury, damage, disruption, etc.

Disaster
event that demands substantial crisis response, exceeds the emergency response and recovery capabilities and resources of the agencies and officials responsible for its management
-So overpowering that local responders are not enough

types of chemical agents
a. Pulmonary (choking agents)
b. Blood agents
c. Vesicants or blister agents
d. Nerve agents
e. Incapacitating agents
f. Irritants (used for riot control but capable of spreading panic when used by terrorists)

types of biological agents
virus
bacteria
toxin

Risk assessment
Process/methodology used for evaluating risk:
-Probability and frequency of hazard occurring
-Level exposure of people and property to hazard
-Effects/costs (indirect and direct) of exposure
Ex: if area is a seaport- could be high cost

Social and Economic Risk Factors
-Based on poverty and social conditions that exist in the area of question
-Social makeup of area- special populations (disabled, young and old, poor)
-May determine after-effect of disaster- important to consider for mitigation, preparedness

Mitigation
A sustained action to reduce or eliminate the risk to people and property from hazards and their effects

Mission: ensure that fewer communities and individuals become victims of disasters, create economically secure, socially stable, better built, more environmentally sound communities that are out of harm’s way

Mitigation Tools
Ways to create safe/secure/stable communities and keep them from harm:
1. hazard ID and mapping
2. design and construction applications
3. land-use planning
4. financial incentives
5. insurance (*NFIP)
6. structural controls

Impediments to mitigation
Denial of the risk
Political will
Costs and a lack of funding
Taking on the issue

counterproductive mitigation measures
Measures that increase the consequence or likelihood factors of disaster
ex: levees leave more vulnerable people in a flood’s path

Federal mitigation programs
1.NFIP
2.Hazard Mitigation Grant Program
3.Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program: mitigation funding not dependent on disaster declaration
4.Flood Mitigation Assistance Program
5.Repetitive Flood Claims Program
6.Severe Repetitive Loss
7.National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program
8.National Hurricane Program
9.Fire Prevention and Assistance Grant Program
10. Housing and Urban Development PATH program incorporates mitigation into public housing

Nonfederal mitigation programs
-State hazard mitigation officers to manage the programmatic and financial matching requirements of the federal programs
-Regional programs (ex: rebuild northwest Florida- public/private partnership)
-Association of State Flood Plain Managers
-National Hazard Mitigation Association
-International Association of Emergency Managers

Response
Immediate actions to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs

Local responders
response to events at community level, local leaders are primary responders, chain of command
i. Community-wide emergency plans that incorporate general procedures/protocols
ii. Local responders trained in ICS and NIMS- must develop, maintain, update community’s emergency plan, guide response/recovery, hold training and education programs

state responders
office of emergency management funded by FEMA and state budget
i. Staff, conduct training and exercise, purchase equipment
ii. Have access to National Guard for personnel, communication, equipment, transport, construction and emergency supplies
iii. Response capability/capacity larger in states w/ more frequent disaster

federal responders
Homeland Security and FEMA coordinate fed activities in support of state and local response and recovery
i. Presidential declaration of disaster
ii. Governors usually request aid for floods and tornadoes, sometimes preemptive

volunteer group response
a. Front line for any disaster response, maintain local chapters to work with the local authorities to address the immediate need of disaster victims (ex. Red Cross, Salvation Army)
b. National Volunteer Organizations Against Disasters (NVOAD): 49 member organizations involved in response and recovery with the overhead organizing communication and allocation for an effective response

Incident Command System
a. Establishes a set of planning and management systems that helps agencies responding to a disaster to work together in a coordinated and systematic approach
b. Created after the 1970 fires to reduce duplication of efforts, lack of coordination/communication
c. Terminology, integrated communication, resource management, unified command structure, action planning

Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Governor → FEMA regional administrator→ director of FEMA→ team in FEMA to evaluate (is state asking for too much/too little? Does law apply?) → President

Federal response plan
1992- provides the mechanism for coordinating delivery of fed assistance and resources to augment efforts of state and local govt in disaster
Goal: maximize available fed resources in support of response/recovery actions taken by state and local emergency officials

national response plan
2004- after absorption of FEMA into the Department of Homeland Security
i. All-discipline, all-hazards approach
ii. Designed according to the National Incident Management System NIMS
iii. Replaced by the NRF in 2008

National Response Framework
a guide to how the nation conducts all-hazards response
i. 2008- gives more generalities, guideline of how things should be done
ii. Also: plan tailored to community (have diff hazards)
iii. Includes 15 ESF’s that align categories of resources and provide strategy

Emergency Support Functions
Emergency Support Function: the coordination mechanism to provide assistance to state, local, and tribal governments or to federal departments/agencies conducting missions of primary federal responsibility
-15, can be more: 15 are just initial ones that federal government finds necessary
-Might need more in different communities (NOLA has 19)

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act
Authorizes president to provide financial and other assistance to state and local governments, organizations, and individuals to support response, recovery, and mitigation efforts

Recovery
A complex set of issues and decisions that must be made by individuals and communities that require balancing immediate need with long-term goal of reducing future vulnerability
-activities begin immediately after presidential declaration

Response v. Recovery
Response: immediately reaction to disaster/event designed to stop the effects
Recovery: once you have stopped effects, can begin to recover/rebuild (can take years)

National Incident Management System (NIMS)
Set of principles that provides a systematic, proactive approach guiding government agencies at all levels, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to work seamlessly to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause/size/location/complexity, in order to reduce loss of life or property and harm to the environment
-revaluated response plan after Katrina, 9/11, 90’s disasters
-local responders trained in it, along with ICS

FEMA Individual Assistance Recovery Programs
Oriented at individuals, families, small businesses:
-Disaster housing program: lodging expenses reimbursement, emergency minimal repair assistance, temporary rental assistance
-Individuals and households program: temporary housing, repairs, replacements,
-Disaster unemployment assistance: unemployment benefits and reemployment services
-Legal services: free legal assistance to low-income victims
-Special tax considerations: may deduct casualty loss on the federal income tax return for the year
-Crisis counseling: short-term services- mental health, grieving, stress
-Cora Brown Fund: funds to assist victims/survivors’ needs that do not be met by existing programs

FEMA Public Assistance Grant Programs
Under authority of Stafford Act, provides fed assistance to state and local governments and to certain private nonprofit organizations for recovery and mitigation:
-Emergency work- debris removal, protective measures to eliminate/reduce immediate threats to public
-Permanent work- work required to restore an eligible damaged facility to its predisaster design, minor repairs-replacement

Federal agency disaster recovery funding
Other federal agencies with programs for social and economic recovery:
-US Army Corps of Engineers
-Dept of Housing and Urban Development
-Small Business Administration
-US Dept of Agriculture
-Dept of Health and Human Services
-Dept of Transportation
-Dept of Commerce
-Dept of Labor

Non governmental organizations
An organization made up of private citizens, with no affiliation with a government of any nation other than the support from government sources

Preparedness
A state or readiness to respond to disaster, crisis, or any type of emergency situation

Mitigation v. Preparedness
You’ve done everything for mitigation, but the potential for a hazard is still evident – you have to be ready for it and its effects

Preparedness Cycle
planning → preparation → evaluation → assessment

Implement enhancements→exercise, train→reassess→assess threat→assess vulnerability→ID shortfalls, requirements

1. planning
2. organization and equipment
3. training
4. exercise
5. evaluation and improvement

Preparedness programs
-Education and training programs
-FEMA Emergency Management Institute and National Fire Academy
-Public Preparedness Education
-Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

Emergency Management Institute
Offer training program courses whose primary objective is to enhance emergency management practices:
i. Integrated Emergency Management Course- for public officials
ii. Disaster-resistance jobs courses
iii. Train-the-trainer courses

Community Emergency Response Team
-Works under local government
-CERT members can be trained in lifesaving, engineering, ambulance, communications, firefighting
-Presents citizens with facts about what to expect following disaster, immediate services
-Give the message about their responsibility for mitigation and preparedness
-Train people in life saving skills, decision-making skills, rescuer safety, doing the greatest good for the greatest number
-Organize teams so they are an extension of first responder services, offering immediate help to victims until professional services arrive

National Fire Academy
Works to enhance the ability of fire and emergency services and allied professionals to deal more effectively w/ fire and related emergencies
-Courses and programs for middle and top-level fire officers, fire service instructors, technical professionals, and representatives from allied professions

FEMA education and training resources
a. National fire academy
b. Emergency management institute
c. CERT
d. Are You Ready? FEMA publication on preparedness
e. Ready.gov

Office for Domestic Preparedness
Within FEMA, created by President Bush to focus attention on terrorist threat and other national security issues
-Reinforce the administration’s desire to shift FEMA’s mission and attention from all-hazards approach

Business Continuity Planning
Process by which businesses prepare for disasters by identifying the risks to their business processes, their facilities, their employees, and their information, and then take action to reduce that risk
-Identification and enactment of the processes by which businesses are able to continue to function during periods of disaster so that they may remain viable for the long term and products/services remain available
-Increases community-wide resilience since supports the business sector recovery

Mission of Disaster Communications
To provide timely and accurate information to the public in all four phases of emergency management:
i.Mitigation: promote implementation of strategies, tech, and actions that will reduce loss of life and property
ii.Preparedness: communicate preparedness messages that encourage and educate public
iii.Response: provide public notification, warning, evacuation, and situation reports on ongoing disaster
iv.Recovery: provide individuals and communities affected with info on how to register for and receive disaster relief

Critical assumptions of disaster communications
-customer focus
-leadership commitment
-inclusion of communications in planning and operations
-good information
-media partnership

James Lee Witt
-was state director of E.Managemet in Arkansas
-appointed by Clinton to head of FEMA
-first director with emergency management experience

Communications audiences and customers
-general public
-disaster victims
-business community
-media
-elected officials
-community officials
-first responders
-volunteer groups

Crisis communications
Inform public effectively as the crisis develops by forming effective messages that are able to explain to the public how what is being said is the most accurate info available despite being incomplete
-Public will increasingly expect communication
-Withholding info leaves the public vulnerable and suspicious of the govt

weather Watch
a chance that the condition will happen and usually covers a large geographical area for a lengthy time period

weather Warning
condition is already occurring or is likely to occur and to take proper protective measures
-usually issued for much smaller areas and for shorter/definite time periods

Communications means
-cell phones
-radio
-social media
-internet
-television
-signal lights and flags
-talk

CHE
Complex Humanitarian Emergency:
civil conflict, deteriorated govt, mass movements of population to escape conflict, massive dislocations of economy, general decline in food security

disasters in developing nations
-more severe, suffer greatest impact b/c of lack of financial support for all stages of emergency management and lack of access to equipment and other functional support
-resources in these countries are usually more focused on education, not hazard mitigation

International Involvement
-threshold to when a disaster becomes international is specific to each country
-factors: severity of hazard and consequences, availability of economic resources, responder training, resilience of infrastructure, govt ability, availability of specialized assets

international humanitarian response
usually in:
-natural disaster
-technological disaster
-complex humanitarian emergency

Issues influencing response in developing nations
1. Coordination of responding agencies
2. Sovereignty of the state: recognition of political authority by territory and autonomy
3. Equality in relief distribution: must be equal, no discrimination or class bias
4. Capacity building and linking relief with development: no “bandage approach”- rebuild infrastructure and develop policy

The United Nations System
-not a govt body, cannot write laws- but members can resolve conflict and create international policy thru UN
-mission: development activities (mitigation, preparedness) and emergency management
-supplies food, shelter, medical assistance, logistic support
-International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

UN response programs
-UN children’s fund
-UN development program
-World Food Program
-UN High Commissioner of Refugees

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
Established to enable global resilience to the effects of nat’l hazards in order to reduce human, economic, and social losses by:
-increasing awareness
-commitment from authorities
-risk-reduction networking
-enhancing research

nongovernmental organizations
-independent and neutral
-decentralized
-committed
-highly practice-oriented and with specific focus areas

US Govt Assistance
-US Agency for International Development- coordinates US response in international disasters (USAID appeals for help)
-US Military in relief efforts of natural and tech disasters and CHEs (requested by USAID thru DOD)

World Bank
1944 to rebuild Europe after WWII
-largest source of development assistance
-goal: reduce poverty, individually help developing countries onto path of stable, sustainable, equitable growth

International Monetary Fund
1946
goal: promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, foster economic growth and high levels of employment, and provide temporary financial assistance to countries thru loans, etc.

Changes in emergency management and the war on terrorism
-increased awareness to the importance of 1st responders
-NYC and Arlington County: need for command chains, communication, response effectiveness, provisions
-Dept of Homeland Security to increase funding, terrorism planning, prevention activities

Fed Gov antiterrorism activity
-Creation of DHS
-Global War on Terrorism- military campaigns in Afghan, Iraq
-Focus on american public’s risk perception

DHS establishment
2002- Tom Ridge as Secretary
Mission: protect US from further attacks, reduce nations vulnerability, minimize damage from potential attack
-created in response to idea that more fed intelligence could have prevented 9/11

2005- Sec Chertoff 6 point agenda on the Dept of Homeland Security
overall preparedness, transportation security systems, border security, info sharing, financial management

Department of Homeland Security subcomponents and agencies
-National homeland security council
-Bureau of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms (ATF) transferred to Dept of Justice
-Arming Pilots Against Terrorism Act
-Critical Infrastructure Information Act: exempts certain components of critical infrastructure form Freedom of Information Act regulations
-Johnny Michael Spann Patriots Trust: support for families of federal employees who die in the line of duty due to terrorist attacks

Critical Infrastructure Information Act
exempts certain components of critical infrastructure form Freedom of Information Act regulations

Johnny Michael Spann Patriots Trust
support for families of federal employees who die in the line of duty due to terrorist attacks

Homeland Security Advisory System
-not in use anymore
-Used for communication w/ the public regarding terrorist threat through threat advisories and information bulletins → once used a system to color-code threat level

Incident Command System (ICS)
Created after the 1970 California fires to reduce duplication of efforts, fix the lack of coordination, and help with communication problems that hindered response → set of planning and managing for coordination

National Incident Management System (NIMS)
Created after the disasters in the 90s, 9/11, and Katrina → it enables responders at all levels to work together more effectively and to efficiently manage domestic incidents no matter what the cause, size, or complexity, including catastrophic acts of terrorism and other disasters

Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS)
all-hazards approach to emergencies including direct, control, and warning as function.

“Terrorism”
the use of force or violence against individuals (civilians) or property for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or spreading fear in order to attain political, religious, or ideological goals

“Critical Infrastructure
infrastructure component that are essential for the normal functioning of society

Dirty Bomb
radiological dispersion device (RDD)
-bomb using conventional explosives to disperse radiological materials

How much U235 to create nuclear explosion
any small amount, ex: 5 lbs, because unstable

Business continuity planning Business continuity planning (BCP) is the process by which business prepare for disasters by identifying the risks to their business process, their employees, and their information, and then take action to reduce that risk. Continuity of operations …

The local emergency manager has the responsibility for coordinating emergency management programs and activities. A local emergency manager is responsible for all of the following activities EXCEPT FOR: A: Managing resources before, during, and after a major emergency or disaster. …

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How is the National Guard deployed to assist in response to a disaster? If the size of the disaster event is so large that the capabilities of local responders are overwhelmed and the costs of the damage inflicted exceeds the …

The Constitution tasks the States with responsibility for public health and safety―hence, they are responsible for public risks Federal Government’s ultimate obligation in a emergency to help when State, local, or individual entities are overwhelmed. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

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