Drugs and Behavior Test #1

Methamphetamine, crack coccaine, ecstacy, and glue sniffing were given as examples of media reports on ______
the “drug du jour”

One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that _____
drugs, per se, are not good or bad

One of the general principles of psychoactive drugs is that “every drug has ______.”
multiple effects

One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that “the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on _____”
the individual’s history and expectations

The use of substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is ______
abuse

Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action when it occurs, is _____
deviant drug use

A drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as ____
an illicit drug

Drugs have played a significant role in human society _____
for thousands of years

In the past 100 years, the introduction of vaccines to prevent diseases and antibiotics to cure some types of infections laid the foundation for ______
our acceptance of medicines as the cornerstone of our health care system

Much of our information about rates of drug use come from survey questionnaires. One important limitation of such questionnaires is ______.
people might not answer honestly

Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, they can be especially informative ______
if they are done year after year, because we can then look for changes over time

Among college students, fewer than one-fourth have ever tried ____
hallucinogens

Based on two large surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use _____
is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970s

When we examine changes over the years in the percentage of high school seniors who say they have smoked marijuana, we find a clear inverse (mirror-image) relationship to _____
perceived risk of harm in using marijuana

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health revealed that current alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use _____
hasn’t changed much in the past 15 years

Factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as _____
risk factors

Factors that are correlated with lower rates of drug use are known as ____
protective factors

One of the most important risk factors for drug use is _______
having friends who use marijuana or other substances

One of the most important protective factors for drug use is _____
believing that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school

One very consistent finding is that students who report ______ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug.
having more involvement with religion

According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana?
White

Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees ____
are much more likely to drink alcohol and much less likely to use tobacco

One personality variable that has been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence is _____
high impulsivity

An example of a longitudianl study of drug use would be _____
following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years

In one study, adolescents who smoked cigarettes were about twice as likely as nonsmokers to later use marijuana. For this reason, cigarettes have been referred to as _____
a gateway substance

Some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. The process is referred to as _____
reinforcement

Which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will try a drug in the first place, as opposed to determining which of those who try it will become dependent?
social

Suppose a person is prescribed an opioid medication (similar to heroin) to treat a painful injury. But after her injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. Based on this information alone, what term would you use to describe her drug use?
drug misuse

Cocaine and methamphetamine are still used for medical purposes in the US? T/F?
True

There are some drugs that we should just define as being bad drugs. T/F?
False

Deviant drug use is defined as use of a drug in greater amounts or for other purposes than intended by a prescribing physician. T/F?
False

The best information we have about which illicit drugs are most widely used comes from police arrest reports.T/F?
False

According to data from Monitoring the Future, an effective public policy would be to increase the perception of the risk of marijuana use because increased perception of risk causes a decrease in marijuana use. T/F?
False

It appears that the highest rates of use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs in the United States occured from about 1979-1980. T/F?
True

Being willing to fight seems to be an important protective factor against substance use. T/F?
False

According to the text, the word “addiction” is a controversial term that has different meanings for different people. T/F?
True

The Monitoring the Future survey collects drug use information from students ages 10 and older. T/F?
False

The U.S. government in the 1800s had a few regulations on industry and in general took a
“hands-off” approach to government that has been referred to by the term _______
laissez-faire

The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was NOT one of the three
high profits for drug sellers

When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called _____
behavioral toxicity

Acute drug effects are those that ______
are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in the body

Which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
high blood pressure from smoking

The Drug Abuse Warning Network _____
monitors drug-related medical emergencies

According to recent DAWN data, which of these substances is near the top of the emergency room visits list?
alcohol-in-combination

What is a Drug Recognition Expert?
A police officer trained to recognize drug-related behavioral impairments

A 2010 analysis of drug-related deaths conducted by the CDC indicates that _____ is responsible for more than half of drug overdose deaths.
pharmaceutical drugs

In comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account _____
that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine

DAWN data provides all of the following EXCEPT
clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs

Since the 1990s , HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users have been reduced from about 50% to about 10% According to the text,which of these factors led to this decrease?
syringe exchange programs

When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called ____
tolerance

The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of _____
physical dependence

The drugs with which people are most likely to develop psychological (behavior) dependence are generally also found to have _____
reinforcing effects in laboratory animals

The DSM-V does not define addiction as such, but has diagnostic criteria for _____
substance use disorders

As views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be _____
psychological dependence, based on reinforcement

Which of these substances has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence?
nicotine

Brain scan studies with drug users
so far can only show changes in response to drug administration

Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder, ______
have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder

In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that _____
longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug

Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to crimes and violence?
alcohol

In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are given urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2012, about _____ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
between 60 and 80

About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug- law violations?
1,500,000

Rank the following drugs (from highest to lowest) according to the number of mentions in the 2009 DAWN emergency department dataset
Cocaine, prescription opioids, antidepressants

The term “laissez-faire” refers to the tendency of news media to sensaztionalize drug problems T/F
False

One important factor that led Congress to adopt the first laws regulating what we now call controlled substances was the association of drug use with crime T/F
True

Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug T/F
True

The DAWN system tells us exactly how many ER visits are caused by a specific drug each year T/F
False

In 2009, methamphetamine was the most frequently cited drug associated with emergency-room visits. T/F
False

Our best estimates is that tobacco cigarettes are associated with over 400,000 deaths per year T/F
True

Physical dependence is often defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped. T/F
True

The drugs that are most likely to lead to dependence are the ones that have reduced effects after repeated use T/F
False

To receive diagnosis of substance use disorder an individual must satisfy at least 2 diagnostic criteria, one which has to be a symptom of physical dependence (tolerance or withdrawal). T/F
False

Recent brain imaging data indicates that drug dependence is caused by an underlying biological abnormality T/F
False

The data suggest that marijuana use increases the likelihood of a person committing a violent crime T/F
False

The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is called _____
homeostasis

In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as ____
glia

Which of these is NOT one of the four important regions found in every neuron?
glia

Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then return to its normal resting level, during each ______
action potential

Cocaine selectively blocks sodium channels, which is the mechanism that leads to ____
local anesthetic effects

_____ results from a loss of myelin wrappings.
Multiple sclerosis

Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the _____
autonomic nervous system

Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to ______
dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway

The neurotransmitter at the end of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is ______
norepinephrine

The ____ is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.
hypothalamus

Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the _____
brainstem

Which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some type of psychotic behavior and in the reinforcing properties of various drugs?
mesolimbic dopamine pathway

Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with ____
serotonin pathways

Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-deprived drugs are called ____
endorphins

The process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors into neurotransmitter molecules is called _____
synthesis

Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the _____
synapse

Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, may cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron, are called ______
receptors

Which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory?
GABA

Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on _____
the type of receptor

Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, or by ____
acting directly on the receptors

Suppose you wanted to prescribe a hypothetical drug that would have an overall excitatory effect on the nervous system. Which would you choose?
A GABA antagonist

The brain imaging technique that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain functions is called _____
positron emission tomography

Unlike neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other T/F
False

The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites T/F
True

In the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in the myelin sheaths T/F
False

It is possible to have an action potential that is relatively small in magnitude (if few channels are open) T/F
False

Parkinson’s disease patients are often treated with dopamine because L-dope cannot cross the blood-brain barrier T/F
False

One of the main ways that drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems is by cutting off blood flow to a specific brain structure T/F
False

MRI and PET are two types of neurotransmitter chemicals T/F
False

GABA and glutamate are similar in that they are found throughout the brain and are primarily inhibitory neurotransmitters T/F
False

Newer local anesthetics are simple modifications of the cocaine molecule that do not pass the blood-brain barrier and thus do not produce cocaine-like feelings of euphoria T/F
True

Most of our drugs originally came either directly or indirectly from ______
plants

Most drugs have three different kinds of names. Which of them belongs to a specific manufacturer?
brand names

The group of psychoactive drugs called stimulants includes ____
cocaine

Among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol can be classified as a(n) _____
depressant

Which of these is given its own classification category, due to its complex effects at different doses?
marijuana

Nonspecific effects of taking a drug are those that do not depend on its chemical activity. They are sometimes referred to as _____
placebo effects

When neither the person taking the drug nor the person evaluating the effects of the drug knows which people are getting the experimental drug and which people are getting the placebo, this procedure is referred to as a(n)
double blind procedure

The threshold on a dose- response curve is the ____
lowest dose at which there is an observable effect of the drug

The text uses an example of overlapping dose-response curves for slowed reaction time, ataxia (staggering), and coma to illustrate _____
that different drug-related effects can have different thresholds

The safety margin for a particular drug is based on the idea that _____
toxic doses will typically be larger than therapeutic doses

With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is usually an increase in the number and severity of _____
side effects

The potency of a drug is defined in terms of _____
the amount required to produce an effect

The story of the Michigan police officer who ate marijuana laced brownies and then called 911, is a good illustration of which basic psychopharmacology fact?
Different routes of administration can producing markedly different drug effects

The time course of a drug’s action depends on_____
how the drug is administered, how rapidly the drug is absorbed, and how the drug is eliminated from the body

Regardless of the route of administration, psychoactive drugs reach the brain tissue by the way of the _____
bloodstream

After oral administration, most absorption of the drug molecules takes place in the _____
small intestine

If you want to get very high concentration of cocaine to the brain very rapidly, which route of administration would you probably use?
intravenous

Of the following routes of administration, which will produce fastest onset of effects?
inhalation

Alcohol has a low tendency, but THC has a high tendency, to _____
bind to blood proteins

The blood-brain barrier _____
prevents many drugs from entering the brain

Concussions and cerebral infections can decrease the effectiveness of _____
the blood-brain barrier

Some drugs may act on all types of neurons by ______
altering the electrical potential across the cell membrane

The most common way for drug molecules to be deactivated is by ____
CYP450 enzymes in the liver

If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity of the CYP450 enzymes that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example of _____
drug disposition tolerance

When use of a drug interferes with normal behavior experienced users may learn to compensate and show less impairment than new users. This is an example of _____
behavioral tolerance

In some cases, repeated use of a drug leads to pharmacodynamic tolerance, which is based on____
reduced sensitivity of neurons

What kind of name is Provigil (an alerting drug)?
brand name

Which of the following would be a reason for a drug company NOT to pursue expensive clinical trails with a new drug?
The therapeutic index is less than 1

a drug’s generic name can only be used by one company T/F
False

Caffeine and cocaine are both considered to be stimulant drugs T/F
True

Marijuana and heroin are both considered to be opioid drugs T/F
False

For most therapeutic effects, there is a maximum effect,and increasing the dose more just increases the number and type of side effects. T/F
True

Most psychoactive drugs taken orally go directly from the stomach to the brain. T/F
False

For many psychoactive drugs, such as nicotine and cocaine, the fastest way to get an effect is by inhaling the drug’s vapors T/F
True

According to the text, inexperienced drug users should avoid taking a drug via a route that increases the drug’s potency. T/F
True

Because the effects of stimulants and depressants counteract each other, taking these drugs in combination does not produce intoxication T/F
False

Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as ____
food products

If you buy a bottle of St. John’s worth 300 mg tablet, each tablet will contain 300 mg _____
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients

The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Art ____
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them

The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up
an “Adverse Events Reporting” priocess

SaMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating ____
depression

What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?
Ginkgo biloba

The U.S. market for over-the-counter drug products totals about ____
$18 billion

Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs, _____
various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients

The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing _____ be kept “behind the counter,” and buyers must show identifications and sign for their purchase.
pseudoephedrine

The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is _____
caffeine

Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved oTC weight-control ingredient is ____
orlistat (alli)

OTC drugs approved as sleep aids, like Nytol and Sominex ____
contain an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine

Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name _____
Aspirin

Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n) ____
antipyretic (reduces fever)

Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of _____
Reye’s syndrome

The generic name for Tylenol and Datril is ____
acetaminophen

NSAID stands for _____
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Cold viruses are usually transmitted ____
by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose

Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?
it acts as a cough suppressant

There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _____, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations.
dextromethorphan

The acronym GRAS stands for
generally recognized as safe

Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?
ibuprofen

Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unneccessary?
dextromethorphan

The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by ____
knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names

If a bottle of pills on a drug store shelf is being sold as a dietary supplement, the label will refer to “nutritional information” and “serving size” T/F
True

The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act increased the FDA’s control over dietary supplements. T/F
False

The main proposed use for St. John’s wort has been for treating depression. T/F
True

The FDA panels that review OTC drugs approve ingredients, not the actual products that often contain several ingredients. T/F
True

OTC stimulants typically include a pseudoephedrine. T/F
False

Orlistat, found in the OTC weight control product alli, interferes with the absorption of fats from the intestine. T/F
True

Aspirin was initially a brand name for Bayer’s acetylsalicylic acid. T/F
True

The generic ingredient in Advil is acetylsalicylic acid. T/F
False

Dextromethorphan is an antihistamine used to dry up a runny nose. T/F
False

The heartburn drug Prevacid was recently moved from prescription only to OTC T/F
True

The evidence indicates that many dietary supplements enhance male sexual performance T/F
False

According to the 2012 Monitoring the Future survey, more 12th graders reported using OTC cough medicines containing dextromethorphan compared to cocaine or methamphetamine. T/F
True

1. The U.S. government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a “hands-off” approach to government that has been referred to by the term -crime. -laissez-faire. -toxicity. -trends. -laissez-faire. 2. The text lists three concerns …

Whether or not Drugs should be legal in a society is a very controversial topic. Some people seem to be stubborn upon the fact that drugs are harmful, hence there is no way they should be legalized, where as others …

Age 21 became the uniform legal drinking age across the U.S. in 1988 The major factor determining individual differences in BAC after drinking alcohol is Volume of distribution (mainly body size) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Thomas De Quincey (1785 – 1859) described the effect of drugs thus “Thou hast the keys of Paradise, oh, just, subtle, and mighty opium!” Over the years people have used drugs for various reasons and treatment needs.

Use of drugs is associated with a multitude of negative effects that if the drug abuser were in their right frame of mind they would never even attempt using the substances. The problem however is that drug users are slaves …

Different institutions use different procedures in analyzing abuse of drugs. One of these is the Behavior Pharmacology Program that uses operant behavioral procedures where the goal is to determine how drug self-administration is modified both by manipulation of behavioral contingencies …

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