Drug Abuse and Drug Addiction

Drug abuse refers to using substance that are considered prohibited or illegal according to the provisions of the law. Drug misuse is using drugs that are regulated in excessive amount and without doctor’s prescription. This commonly occurs to relieve stress, avoid reality or produce pleasure. Drug addiction is a state where a person takes a drug every day, despite harm to himself or herself. Trends and Statistics It is significant to go after the rising trends when trying to control, treat and prevent drug abuse.

This can help us understand the motives behind first encounter with drugs, which can lead to long-term drug addiction. They can also help us find out what aspects causes the increase the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction. Youth are the first target of drug abuse and addiction because of peer pressure from friends, family problems and self-concept problem were some reasons why youth became a victim of drug addiction.

There are research that proved that between 2003 and 2004, 12th grade children became less aware of the risks of heroin abuse and showed an increased knowledge of the availability and differing types of cocaine in their neighborhood, whilst 8th grade children felt that inhalant abuse didn’t pose significant risks and acid abuse became more acceptable. Steroid use amongst 12th graders has remained at a high level. A 0. 4% increase in 30-day cocaine abuse by 10th grade children was recorded between 2003 and 2004. Abuse of prescription drugs increased by up to 3. 7% amongst children progressing through grades 8 to 10.

These trends are extremely worrying considering that most habits formed during school age years prove very hard to break later in life. (Stone Hawk, 2006) 1. Alcohol Use ( GDCADA, 2006) • At least once a year, the guidelines for low risk drinking are exceeded by an estimated 74% of male drinkers and 72% of female drinkers aged 21 and older. 2 • 65% of youth surveyed said that they got the alcohol they drink from family and friends. • Nearly 14 million Americans meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. • Youth who drink alcohol are 50 times more likely to use cocaine than those who never drink alcohol.

• Among current adult drinkers, more than half say they have a blood relative who is or was an alcoholic or problem drinker. • Across people of all ages, males are four times as likely as females to be heavy drinkers. • More than 18% of Americans experience alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence at some time in their lives. • Alcohol is the most commonly used drug among young people. • Problem drinkers average four times as many days in the hospital as nondrinkers — mostly because of drinking-related injuries. • Alcohol kills 6? times more youth than all other illicit drugs combined.

• Concerning the past 30 days, 50% of high school seniors report drinking, with 32% report being drunk at least once. 2. Nicotine Through the use of cigarettes, cigars, and chewing tobacco, nicotine is one of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the United States. In 2004, 29. 2 percent of the U. S. population 12 and older—70. 3 million people—used tobacco at least once in the month prior to being interviewed. * This figure includes 3. 6 million young people age 12 to 17. Young adults aged 18 to 25 reported the highest rate of current use of any tobacco products (44. 6 percent) in 2004 (NIDA, 2006)

3. Marijuana Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in CEWG areas, and levels of use and abuse are high among adolescents and young adults. Rates of marijuana ED mentions per 100,000 population increased significantly between the first half of 2001 and the first half of 2002 in Miami, Newark, Phoenix, and San Diego, but decreased in Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle. Primary marijuana admissions (excluding alcohol) accounted for approximately one-quarter to one-half of admissions for illicit drug use in 12 of the 20 CEWG areas reporting 2002 treatment data.

The proportions were highest in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Miami, Colorado, New Orleans, and Seattle. The percentages of adult male arrestees testing marijuana-positive in 2002 exceeded the percentages testing positive for other drugs in 12 of 16 CEWG areas. The same was true of female arrestees in only three of nine CEWG sites. The DEA reported seizures of 195,644 kilograms of marijuana in 2002, the lowest amount since 1996. (NIDA, 2006) 4. Methamphetamine Methamphetamine abuse continues to spread geographically and to different populations.

In addition to the large “super labs” in California and trafficking from Mexico, there has been a proliferation of small “mom and pop” laboratories throughout the country, especially in rural areas. Methamphetamine abuse and production continue at high levels in Hawaii, west coast areas, and some southwestern areas, and abuse and manufacture continues to move eastward. Several CEWG areas report new populations of methamphetamine users, including Hispanics and young people in Denver, club goers in Boston, and African-Americans in Texas.

Primary admissions for amphetamines/methamphetamine (excluding alcohol) represented a sizable minority of treatment admissions in eight CEWG areas in 2002. Most admissions were primary methamphetamine users. The percentages of adult male arrestees testing positive for methamphetamine use trended upward in nine CEWG areas between 2000 and 2002. Additionally, one-half of adult female arrestees in Honolulu tested positive in 2002, as did nearly 42 percent in Phoenix and 37 percent in San Diego.

Not only methamphetamine users, but also children exposed to and agencies that seize and clean up methamphetamine labs are also in danger of serious health consequences. (NIDA, 2006) References GDCADA (2006) Alcohol. Retrieved on December 11, 2006 http://www. gdcada. org/statistics/alcohol. htm Stone Hawk (2006) Drug Abuse. Retrieved on December 11, 2006. http://www. narcononstonehawk. com/trends-and-statistics. php National Institute on drug Abuse. NIDA InfoFacts: Nationwide Trends. Retrieved on December 11, 2006. http://www. nida. nih. gov/Infofacts/nationtrends. html

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