Domestic violence in the U.S.

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The study to be conducted is aimed to present a comprehensive research on the different issues related to domestic violence in the United States. The proposed coverage of the study is an overview and an alternative view on the issue of the violations that commonly oppress and abuse the women and children in the household. The main focus of the study is to be able to present a comparative study on the relevance of the ethnic origin mainly for white American, African American and Hispanic American that are considered to be the largest groups in the United States.

Aside form the study on the basis of the racial groups the individual groups are classified into different age groups. Table of Contents Introduction 4 Statement of the Problem 9 Review of Related Literature 14 Consequences of the Problem 18 Statement of Purpose and Importance 20 Definition of Terms 21 Hypotheses 22 Variables 23 Data Collection 24 Introduction Domestic violence is considered as one of the most prevalent problems in the present society, specifically in the United States. The occurrence of the crime and it spreading effect caused advocacy of different groups in the society.

The consciousness regarding the issue related to violence in the home can be considered as a complex problem that covers different aspects such as women and children as well. Occurrence of the different forms and types of domestic violence caused alarm that mobilized the society. The action and attention given to the domestic violence cases was known to have been initiated in the latter part of the 20th century when cases were reported. The issue on domestic violence comes in many forms. One is on the basis is the victims of violence. The most prevalent victims are the women which are involved in the relationship and the children as well.

Although this is the case, men can also be victims in cases such as same sex relationships (Baker, Carlin, Price, & Salazar, 2003). The domestic violence cases opened the eyes of society into the need for protection of the members of the family and people residing under the same roof. The cases that have women as victims dominated the cases relating to domestic violence, in fact, the advocacy of the protection of women against this type of crime initiated the fight against domestic violence in the 90’s. The fight started in the United Nation’s conference in 1980 that focused on the experiences of violence undertaken by women in the family.

Through the realization of the need for protection of the women and the victims of domestic violence, the development of the organizations that focus and give attention to the issue was undertaken (Bureau of Justice, 2003). The actions that was undertaken and initiated during the latter part of the 20th century involve the different aspects of the issue on domestic violence. The resolution on domestic violence can be viewed on the basis of the social, medical and legal aspects on the basis of both the suspect and the victim.

The social aspect is involved in the occurrence of the domestic violence in the society as affected by the different personal and interpersonal interactions and relationships. Another view is related to the medical and psychological considerations for both the perpetrator and the victim of the action. The particular aspect tackles the physiological and scientifically based factors that can be related to committing violence and the application of interventions that can result to the ceasing of domestic violence.

The legal aspect of the domestic violence is related to the protection that can be accessed by the victims to be able to fight the perpetrators of the crime. On the other hand, the legal aspect is also engaged in the punishment that should be duly given to the violators and the parties responsible for domestic crime committed (Roberts, 2002; Shipway, 2004). The actions undertaken by the authorities were initiated when the cases of domestic violence were increasingly becoming one of the cases that caught the attention of the public.

Based on the survey that was conducted by the Commonwealth Fund in relation to the health of women in the society, the domestic aspect being the most important aspect, the domestic violence is now affecting a large percentage of the population. Based on the results, there are approximately 960,000 events in that can be classified as domestic violence that involves women in the society. The violators are often the partners with violations of different forms. The cases that involves women tally to about 3 million (1999). The results of these surveys are the main reasons for concern of the different groups in the society.

The increasingly critical state of domestic violence affects women and children compared to other members of the family. Due to this fact, the actions against domestic violence were initiated for the violence against women. The objectives of the advocacy against domestic violence greatly target the cases that involve violations against women. One of the earliest actions undertaken by the government in response to the increasing prevalence and occurrence of domestic violence is the federal legislation Violence Against Women Act, also referred to as the VAWA.

The said legislation was voted for in the congress in 1994. The main focus of the VAWA is the provision of legal action and protection for abused women. Another aim is the focus on the punishment intended for the violators and the perpetrators of the different forms of violations (Roberts, 2002). Action such as the establishment of organizations establishment of different policies that targets the resolution of the problems related to domestic violence is one of the main method undertaken by the state, specifically the Congress, against the violence at home.

The continued action both of the public and private sectors including actions such as subsidy and financial support for the research regarding the issue as well as the information dissemination to be able to achieve the knowledge for the public to be empowered to be able to prevent the exponential increase in the occurrence of these type of cases. Although different actions are being undertaken both by the local and international authorities and organizations to be able to prevent and find solutions to the problems on domestic violence, there are still different aspects of the complex issue that need attention.

One of the Primary aspects that are needed to be put into focus is the coverage and definition of the cases defined as domestic violence. Another is the focus on the trend in the occurrence of cases that can be considered as domestic violence. The straightening of the issues such as domestic abuse and battering being considered as the major contributing cases in the rise of the incidents of domestic abuse and the studies being undertaken by different groups is another important aspect in the study covering domestic violence.

Due to the detrimental effects of the occurrence of violence in the household, the study pertaining to any area in related to the issue can be considered essential not only for the prevention and solution but for the accumulation and addition of the knowledge on domestic violence. Such collection of the baseline information, data and statistical studies will provide researchers and specialist knowledge basis for comparative studies for in depth analysis of the issue. The issues related to domestic violence covers an extensive field that needs to be understood on both the analytical and descriptive level.

In the study, it is then essential to consider the presentation of the different aspect of the issue prior to the presentation of the specific focus of the study. In this note, it is important to present an overview of the issues relating to the topic. Thus, one of the objectives of the research to be conducted is the presentation of the different issues related to domestic violence including the definition on the basis of varying points of view. The potential victims of the violence at home are also another topic that can be included, covering women and children as the majority.

The statistical occurrence of the different factors in the issue is also covered. The main importance of the study is the presentation of s different perspective in the issue of domestic violence. Although studies regarding the issue are continuously being undertaken by different group both in the local and international community, the importance of an alternative point of view is essential for the analytical study of the issue, which goes for other issues in the society as well.

Also due to the fact that the victims of these times of violations continuously are in need of the advocacy and the knowledge regarding the possible areas of violations, the increase of knowledge being pooled is imperative for consciousness regarding the issue. This is done both for defense and the vigilance against the violence that can affect any member of the community. Objectives of the Study The study revolves around the presentation of the data related to domestic violence in the United States. The study is to be undertaken through a descriptive method of research involving the different aspect related to domestic violence.

Analytical conclusions will be drawn out from the general to specific establishment of the data gathered. Specifically then, upon the establishment of the different notions that can be considered significant to the study, the focus of the research is mainly on the women as the victim of the abuse in the household. The study will cover the causes and effects of the domestic violence on women. Also, the statistical data on the basis of the horizontal trends of occurrence of cases of women victims of violence in the household are also included. The aim is to cover a specified period of study.

In addition to the mentioned areas, another aspect of aimed study is the comparative analysis of the domestic violence that occurs in the different groups and specifically on the basis of ethnicity and race. In the United States, there are different ethnic groups that can be the basis of the study. These groups are the white American females, the African American females and the Hispanic females that mostly dominate the southern part of the region. Also, another basis of the study is the age groups of the subjects that are taken into consideration. Statement of the Problem

The domestic violence is considered to be one of the most pervasive problems in the society. This is due to the fact that it affects the basic unit of the community which is the family. In this scenario, the foundation of the society can be affected, thus, the in depth study and quest for the solution on the problems in the household is essential. The increasing occurrence of the cases that affects the members of the household, specifically the women and children, caused the concern and the attention that have been received by the issue by different groups in the society such as academic research groups and the authorities.

Upon the consideration of the factors that can affect the issues on domestic violence, a proposed study is essential not only for an addition of the preexisting notions and knowledge regarding the issue but also for an analytical presentation of certain issues that needed to be givens an alternative angle to be able to attain a deeper understanding. Due to the escalation of the problems in relation to domestic violence such as abuse and the physical violations the in depth addition of substantial data regarding the issue on the violence in the household is essential to the resolution of the problem.

Upon the determination of the area that is in need of clarification and focus, the comparative study of the different ethnicity alongside the consideration of the stratification of the population on the basis of the age groups. To be able to analyze the necessity of the research to be undertaken, there are certain points that are needed to be taken into consideration. There are factors to be considered. One of these factors is the applicability of the issue on the domestic violence in the present and contemporary period is one of the primary considerations in the study.

This can be related to the present effect of the issue which can be a defended through the prevalence of the crime in the society, in fact it is presently considered as one of the most prevalent violations in the community. The effects of the occurrence of domestic violence cover both the medical and the social aspects, thus, the study of the issue is considered of importance in the present society (Wilt and Olson, 1996). Another factor that is considered in the carrying out of the research study is the relevance of the issue in the future.

In relation to this factor it is important to consider the projected effects of the continued occurrence of domestic violence in the society. On the basis of the different studies conducted in relation to the issue, the reality of the problem can be perceived to be relevant in the future. The spread of the cases of domestic violence transcends the territorial boundaries and is internationally being given attention . The cases of violence also occurs regardless of ethnic orientation and the age groups of the victims.

Due to the extent of the coverage of the problem, the study of the said issue then can be considered to cover a significant portion through the course of history (Johnson and Kishor, 2005). On the profile of the cases and studies related to the domestic violence, it can be perceived that the issue shall cover and affect the future population. Thus, continuous study and reporting of the cases of domestic violence is important in the ultimate resolution of the problem (Agurto, Ellsberg, Heise, Pena, & Wink, 2001; Tower, 2003).

The particular need for in depth study of the issue answers the relevance of the issue of domestic violence in the future. Another issue considered in the study is the ultimate contribution of the results in relation to the quest for the resolution of the problems on violence and violations occurring in the household. As one of the social issued that have detrimental effects in the society, domestic violence is needed to be understood and properly defined to be able to present distinct and concrete demarcations and notions that can empower the public to be able to fight and prevent the persistence of cases of violence.

This can be perceived as the practical application of the research on domestic violence. The theoretical contribution of the research to be conducted is also an important aspect in the study of the domestic violence. One of the major aims in the undertaking of the project is the establishment of different concepts related to the issue. Through this, the pool of knowledge will continuously be enhanced and amplified which can serve for the purpose of educating the public on the effects of such crime, with the members of the family being the victims.

Empowerment leads to either the prevention or the termination of the occurrence of violence (Kelly, 2004). The population and the study of the target group of the research process also play an important role in the course of the research to be conducted. In taking into consideration the population that can be potentially affected by the domestic violence, it can be surmised as an extensive problem due to the fact that it can affect any nation regardless of the status and age group.

Thus, the potential population is composed of the members of the household and the international community. Considering the characteristics of the target population leads to the reflection on the importance of undertaking the study on the subject matter. Due to the potential effect of the issue on every member of the community, the in depth study is essential for the resolution on a problem that can affect the majority. The widespread issue on the violence that can occur inside the home then can be considered as one of the major problems that is needed to be given attention.

One of the major areas of consideration in the determination on the feasibility of the study to be undertaken is the concept and the knowledge that can be presented. In relation to this, the study on the domestic violence can cover and impart any of the objectives such as to offer new concepts and alternative points of view in relation to the topic on the basis of the research to be conducted; another is to expound on pre-existing notions and principles regarding the issue and lastly, to be able to amend and alter established notions.

In the process, the main object of focus is the result of the study. The basic aim of the study to be conducted is the presentation of an alternative view through the comparative study of the prevalence of the domestic violence in the United States through the focus on the different ethnic and age groups. The effects of the study to be conducted are measured up on the basis of the effects on the different aspects of the research techniques and its application. Aside from the research process itself, the contribution of the research to the field being studied can be considered of importance.

In the case of the domestic violence wherein the medical and social aspects exist, the contribution on both the fields are taken into consideration. In relation to the aim of the study to be able to achieve and present a certain view related to the effects of the issue on violence in the household, one notion can be surmised that is the fact that the results of the study can be an important contribution to the pool of knowledge related to the issue. In this not it is important to consider that although the data had been studied, an essential point being considered by the presentation of an alternative view on the topic.

The research process to be conducted will focus on comparative percentage of the prevalence of abuse between different major population groups in the United States. The groups included are the Caucasian American females, the African American women and the Hispanic females. These groups are studied through the stratification on the basis of the age groups. The main query to be answered is the significance of the ethnic origin in relation to the prevalence of violence in women of the United States. The process will involve the classification of the population on the basis of the different age groups.

Is there a significant relationship between the percentage of prevalence of the domestic violence and the ethnic origin? Review of Related Literature The main reason of the rise of interest in the study of the domestic abuse specifically among women is the increasing prevalence of the violence in the society. On the basis of the studies conducted related to the area, the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is one of the concepts that is used to measure the occurrence of the domestic violence in the groups under study. The main traits measured in the studies that are undertaken are the physical violence.

One of the results of a significant study that focuses on the types and the extent of the act of violence that are experienced by the members of the household is presented in Table 1 (Wilt and Olson, 1996). Based on the results of the study that focused on the perpetrators of violence, the husbands are the violators. The area covered by the study is based on the different level of the physical abused that can be experienced by the victim. The intensity of the violence can come to the point that the victim is hit by certain object or a warning to impose harm through the use of different weapons.

These acts of violence can be classified as ‘severe’ violence. On the other hand, the inclusion of less serious acts that can inflict less physical effects is included in the total violence concept (Wilt and Olson, 1996). The different statistical study proved the need for a deeper understanding of the issues related to domestic violence. Results showed that certain percentage of the female population undergo certain level of abuse in the household which can be classified as domestic violence. Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) of the Department of Justice, from 1973 to 1981 there are 0.

3% to 0. 4% on the record of women that are violated through different forms offenses. On the other hand, during the survey conducted for the period 1987 to 1991 0. 5% CTS was recorded which have undertaken any of the violations such as sexual assault and other forms of crime (Johnson and Kishor, 2005; The Commonwealth Fund, 1999; Wilt and Olson, 1996). Table 1. Annual Prevalence of Severe and Total Domestic Violence Notes: *Sample type: Prob=probability sample Low SES=mainly respondents of low socioeconomic status (SES); SRS=stratified random sample;

Mixed SES=respondents of various socioeconomic statuses. Source: (Wilt and Olson, 1996). During the period of 1980, a year that can be considered to have a role in the effort against domestic violence specifically those that involve physically abusing women, the United Nations initiated action through the Denmark conference (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). The action was perceived necessary due to the increasing prevalence of the crimes that can be related to the household commonly performed by the male against the female partners or the even the children.

The initiative of the international organization, UN, resulted into a General Assembly regarding the issue in 1985. The main focus of the assembly was the women victims of domestic violence. The action that was undertaken by the UN initiated and gives attention to the escalating problem of violence at home, a place that used to be considered to be the refuge every person (Bureau of Justice, 2003). Based on the records provided by the National Center for the State Courts during the period 1993 to 1995, there is an increase of more than 20 percent in the cases related to domestic violence (1996).

This figure can be considered as one of the most significant change achieved at a certain period of reporting. The study was conducted in 32 states within which the said increase was observed in 18 of these states (National Center for the State Courts, 1996). In the increasing effect of the issue in the society, the National Violence Against Women Survey in November 1995 to May 1996, a quarter of the population had an experience at least once in their lifetime inside the household.

The survey also covers certain actions that are classified as domestic violence. Upon the initiation of the actions regarding domestic violence, the UN continued its efforts both in terms for the quest for knowledge and information regarding the issue. In 1995, in the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, 12 critical areas of concern were presented to be able to classify the dangers that are being undertaken by the female population in relation to domestic violence. During the same period, another concerted effort was undertaken in 2001.

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination was held to be able to present the Optimal Protocol that can protect the abused women. The said organization allows the advocacy not only of the concerned members of the community against domestic violence but also the victims to fight the violence themselves through cooperation with such groups (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). A study that was conducted in 2001 resulted in the determination that 588,490 women, approximately more than 0.

5 million were victims of different forms of violations that are performed by the partners in a domestic setting (Bureau of Justice, 2003). This presents a continuously increasing domestic violence. Thus, continued efforts are required regarding the quest for the resolution of the issue. Through the study that was conducted by the different groups in the local and international community, it was conceived that throughout the cases of domestic violence they are the victims. In fact, there is inexistent percentage of women violators in cases of domestic crimes.

The main advocates of the fight against domestic violence in general is lead by the United Nations along with the different groups such as World Health Organization, UNICEF, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the UN Population Fund, and the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). These are some of the major actions undertaken by different international groups in response to the increasing occurrence of the domestic violence in different countries and most especially in the United States.

Consequences of the Problem The focus of the research to be conducted is the significance of the ethnic orientation in relation to the occurrence and probability of being victims to cases of domestic violence. In the study and choice of the issue as the subject of the research to be conducted, one of the major concerns is the consequences of the problem. One of the major areas of consideration in the determination on the feasibility of the study to be undertaken is the concept and the knowledge that can be presented.

The basic aim of the study to be conducted is the presentation of an alternative view through the comparative study of the prevalence of the domestic violence in the United States through the focus on the different ethnic and age groups. Through the determination of the significance of the ethnicity on the cases of domestic violence, there are two notions that can be recognized. The first notion is the stratification of the population in the aim to better recognized the group within which the cases of domestic violence can be more prevalent and rampant.

On the other hand, another notion is the commencement of the further study and research to develop the relationship between the ethnic origin and the probability of being a victim and be abused in the home. The consequences of the proposed study are essential due to the effects measured up on the basis of the different aspects of the research techniques and its application (Agurto, Ellsberg, Heise, Pena, & Wink, 2001). Aside from the research process itself, the contribution of the research to the field being studied can be considered of importance.

In the case of the domestic violence wherein the medical and social aspects exist, the contribution on both the fields are taken into consideration. It can then be surmised that the achievement of the study is a step closer to the determination and definition of domestic abuse in a relatively distinct angle (Johnson & Kishor, 2005). Although the aim of the study is to determine the significant relationship between the presented variables, it must be taken into consideration that results can bring about a negative relationship or null relationship.

This can be states that determination that the ethnic group has no significant relationship with the occurrence of domestic violence in the United States can also is an important contribution to the knowledge base in relation to the issue. The aim of the study to be able to achieve and present a certain view related to the effects of the issue on violence in the household, one notion can be surmised that is the fact that the results of the study can be an important contribution to the medical and social aspects.

It is important to consider that although the data had been studied, an essential point being considered by the presentation of an alternative view on the topic, a significant point of view on the issue (Kelly, 2004). The consequence of the problem revolves around the notion that relates the baseline information and the origin of the population with the probability of being involved in cases of domestic violence. Experimental studies related to the issue are important contributions to the information that can be distributed to the public for the prevention and empowerment (Roberts, 2002; Shipway 2004).

Statement of Purpose and Importance The study was aimed to present the possible relationship between the ethnic origin and the percentage of prevalence of domestic violence in the community and the United States. The specific factors that are involved in the study constitute the significant purposes of the study and are needed to be defined. The proposed course of research goes from the presentation of the overview of the factors affecting the occurrence of domestic violence in the society.

Due to the intent of presentation of a distinct and specific point of view in a specified area of study under the complex issue, the research to be conducted was intentionally directed to the focus on the women as the victim of the perpetration of domestic violence. The importance of the decision lies on the fact that women comprise the largest percentage of the victims of related violations. The advocacy of the different international groups and organizations regarding the violence at home is mainly focused on the female population mainly the study is aimed on the effects of the issue on the female part of the population.

There are different factors that are considered in the study to be undertaken. These factors include the baseline data such as gender and age. These are considered important in analysis of social problems due to the fact that trends vary on the basis of age groups and gender. But although these factors are considered essential, it is used to be able to group and classify data. There are other factors that can be viewed as related to the cause of domestic violence. Another, the consideration on the geographic location on the belief regarding violence at home is included in the study.

This can also be related ethnicity. The significance of the race and ethnic groups in different issues in the society brought about the notion that it can affect the reaction and the treatment of members of the community. Thus, the ethnic origin has the possibility and significance in the study of domestic violence. This can also be related to the location of the violation. The main focus of the study conducted is the three groups in the United States that are considered of importance. One of the factors that can be considered is the social status of the household.

Financial problems can contribute to the pressures that can be experienced by the family. The struggles can be considered as one of the major problems that can create pressure in the household (Wadman, 2005). In relation to the problem in the financial status of the family are the employment and the source of livelihood in the family. Unemployment can also put pressure in the relationship of the family. Physical and mental conditions of the members of the family are also needed to be considered.

Impairments and disabilities can cause negative impacts. The interaction of the members of the family, both the violators and the victims are also essential in consideration of the perpetration of the domestic violence. Another factor that can be considered to be a potential reason in domestic violence is substance abuse. Thus, the results of the proposed study will be based on the following factors: • Demographic and baseline information such as age and gender • Social status of the household • Employment or unemployment

• Physical and mental conditions of the members • Substance abuse These factors will be the parameters that will be considered in the study on the occurrence of domestic violence. These factors are pertinent to the determination of the significant relationship between ethnicity and the prevalence of domestic violence. Definition of Terms In the research to be conducted there are important terms that are needed to be characterized and given meaning. These terms are either technical or used on a different context in the research process.

Domestic violence is the most essential term in the research. It was considered to be a medical case due to the fact that the effects can be both physical and psychological in nature. The behavior of the violator can vary on the basis on the level of the pain inflicted on the victim. These can be undertaken through spoken or oral maltreatment, physical and even sexual attack. Oral or spoken abuse can be undertaken through bad language and even rise in intensity and loudness of voice

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