DIT 14 Cardiology 3

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what are 4 external signs of Hyperlipidemia
what are 4 external signs of Hyperlipidemia

3 types of Arteriosclerosis
3 types of Arteriosclerosis

what is the progression and complications of Atherosclerosis
what is the progression and complications of Atherosclerosis

what is the main cause of aortic dissection
what is the main cause of aortic dissection
mostly associated with hypertension

Aortic aneurism
Aortic aneurism
Mostly associated with atherosclerosis

what are the two types of aortic dissection
what are the two types of aortic dissection
type A: proximal to subclavian (more life threatening, can disturb cerebral blood flow)
type B: distal to subclavian (possibly managed with medication)

What are the three types of angina?
How are they treated?
How much blockage is required before ischemia symptoms begin
What are the three types of angina?
How are they treated?
How much blockage is required before ischemia symptoms begin
Stable/unstable: nitrates
Prinzmetal’s: calcium channel blockers

how does Prinzmetal’s angina present on ECG differently than stable/unstable angina
ST elevation (indicates severe ischemia)

the others have ST depression (indicates slight ischemia)

what are the 5 deadly causes of chest pain
what are the 5 deadly causes of chest pain

Sudden cardiac death
Sudden cardiac death
Death from cardiac causes within 1 hour of onset of symptoms, most commonly due to a lethal arrhythmia (e.g., ventricular fibrillation). Associated with CAD (up to 70% of cases).

Coronary steal syndrome
Vasodilator may aggravate ischemia by shunting blood from area of critical stenosis to an area of higher perfusion.

Chronic ischemic heart disease
Chronic ischemic heart disease
Progressive onset of CHF over many years due to chronic ischemic myocardial damage.

sharp pain lasting for hours-days and is slightly improved when sitting forward
pericarditis

review evolution of an MI histology
review evolution of an MI histology

Dressler’s syndrome
Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune

when are you prone to heart wall rupture after an MI
5-10 days

when is the heart prone to ventricular wall aneurism
2 weeks to months

due to fibrosis replacing the muscular wall

How to diagnose an MI?

what is the gold standard?
How to diagnose an MI?

what is the gold standard?

Myoglobin is the earliest elevation but non-specific

Evolution of an MI
Evolution of an MI
*sometimes inverted T wave happens first

2 types of infarction
2 types of infarction

what are 6 common complications of an MI and what is there timing
what are 6 common complications of an MI and what is there timing

what is the most common fatal arrhythmia after an acute MI
V-fib

severe mitral regurgitation after an MI
papillary muscle rupture (RCA obstruction)

review arteries, walls, and ECG leads associated with it.
review arteries, walls, and ECG leads associated with it.

what is the most common cardiomyopathy and what are 6 causes
what is the most common cardiomyopathy and what are 6 causes

what is myocarditis and what is the most common cause in the US?

What do you see on histology
what is myocarditis and what is the most common cause in the US?

What do you see on histology

generalized inflammation of the myocardium (not due to ischemia)

most common cause is Coxsackie B virus (Echo and influenza virus can also cause it)

what is the genetics Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and what gene is effected
what is the genetics Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and what gene is effected
autosomal dominant
β-myosin heavy chain mutation
*banana shaped ventricle*

what genetic disorder is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
fredich’s ataxia

what is the histology of hypertophic cardiomyopathy
Disoriented, tangled, hypertrophied myocardial fibers

aka *myocyte disarray*

Restrictive/ obliterative cardiomyopathy and causes.
Restrictive/ obliterative cardiomyopathy and causes.

Löffler’s syndrome vs Löffler’s pnemonitis
Löffler’s syndrome: restrictive cardiomyopathy

Löffler’s pneumonitis: pulmonary Helminth infection of ascaris

isolated right heart failure from chronic hypoxia
cor pulmonale
(RHF not associated with LHF or genetic/congenital conditions)

what are the causes of right vs left CHF
what are the causes of right vs left CHF

Spinal cord tract responsible for voluntary motor command from the motor cortex to the head and neck
Spinal cord tract responsible for voluntary motor command from the motor cortex to the head and neck
corticobulbar tract

review tracts of the spinal cord
review tracts of the spinal cord

What are the 4 basic treatments for an acute MI?

What are the
What are the 4 basic treatments for an acute MI?

What are the “other” treatments for management

beta blockers
ACE inhibitors

What are the blood pressures in the right vs left ventricle
What are the blood pressures in the right vs left ventricle

What is the most common cause of endocarditis in someone with artificial heart valves
S. epidermidis

What are the 3 side effects of Niacin as a lipid lowering agent
Flushing
Hyperglycemia (Acanthosis Nigrans)
Hyperuricemia

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Atrial Fibrillation Image Premature Ventricular Contraction Image WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Critical Aortic Stenosis 3-6% of all cases of CHD Males 4x>females Aortic valve obstruction bicuspid or unicuspid aortic valve …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy DOE, PND, edema. Echo w/ LVH or RVH, hypokinesis CHF S3 CHF, dilated cardiomyopathy WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Aorta The largest artery in the body aortic valve the valve between the left ventricle and the aortaa WE …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) are interchangeable terms. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Ischemic Heart …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Heart location in the middle of the thorax between the two lung apex deviation to the left Heart chambers …

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