disaster preparedness test 1

emergency management
makes sure one has enough supply; make sure equipment is working; protocols for different types of disasters

4 phases of emergency management
1. mitigation
2. preparedness
3.response
4. recovery

disaster characteristics
low probability but high impact; 10-15 disasters each year; cant be defined by the number of casualties

diaster occurance
occurs when the need exceeds our resources

disaster
an emergency that disrupts normal community function and causes concern for the safety, property, and lives of its citizens

disaster medicine
a system of study and medical practice associated with the disciplines of emergency medicine and public health

issues during disasters
1.communication
2.personal
3.supplies

disaster cycle
1.quiescent level or interdisaster period
2.prodrome or warning phase
3.impact phase
4.rescue phase or the emergency
5. recovery or reconstruction phase

geographic effect
the healthcare facility closest to the disaster will need the most help; individuals transport self

dual-wave phenomenon
the first wave is immediate 15-30 minutes post event (walking wounded)
the second wave arrives at 30-60 minutes post event (need transport)

disaster zones
-zone of total impact
-zone of marginal impact
-zone of filtration
-zone of national and international aid

zone of total impact
directly damaged by the disaster; structural ruin, casualties

zone of marginal impact
directly damaged by the disaster; structural ruin, casualties; supplies sometimes are delivered here first

zone of filtration
not directly affected by the disaster; victims come to area

zone of national and international aid
coordination and collection of various levels of relief efforts supplies/personnel

CBRNE
chemical
biological
radiological
nuclear
explosive

terrorism
an event that involves an individual or organization that use some type of violence to advance a political, ideology point

criminal incident
includes extortion, murder, or a nonpolitical objective

overt
shown immediately after an attack; chemical terrorism;

covert
hidden; biological agent and will not have an immediate effect

CDC’s focus areas
1.preparedness and prevention
2. detection and surveillance
3. diagnosis and characterization of agents
4.response
5.communication

hurricanes
uncommon weather phenomena; do not develop spontaneously

hurricane stage 1
the first organized state in the development of a hurricane; a system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined circulation pattern; winds are 38 mph or less

hurricane stage 2
and organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined circulation pattern; sustained wind speeds of 39 to 75 mph

hurricane stage 3
sustained wind speeds of 74 mph and higher are obtained

hurricane scale
5 categories; 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest

storm surge
high winds push down on ocean surface and water blows up and wont stop

hurricane watch
a hurricane is scheduled to approach within 72 hours; mitigation: supplies and secure your home

hurricane warning
a hurricane is scheduled to approach within 24 hours; evacuate, go to most secure place in home, listen to warning sirens and alarms

injuries of hurricanes
1. lacerations-80% of injuries
2. blunt trauma
3. puncture wounds
most injuries occur in feet and lower extremities

hurricane prehospital considerations(pre-planning)
prestorm predetermined evacuation routes(mitigation); traffic congestion is a significant problem; pair ems with utility trucks for post event

hurricane hospital considerations
disaster plan in place; plan must be flexible and provide a rapid response; hospital emergency incident command system organized and coordinated response; plan for 3 days of alternate supply of water/electricity; generators needed for emergency power

hospital command center
coordination of hospital activity; incident command center; redundant communication system (land lines, cell phones, radios); alternate site may be needed for command center

earthquakes
the most costly of all natural disasters; occur without warning

tectonic plate theory
the earths crust is divided in large sections called tectonic plates; major faults occur where these plates meet; as plates move against each other along fault lines, they generate increasing levels of stress

richter scale
assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake

earthquake prehospital considerations
stock supplies; plan for communication; plan that can determine if hospital is damaged or not; plan on how to triage patients; transportation; plan for rescue

triage
a way to organize patients and divide them into groups

START
Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment; respirations; perfusion: circulatory; mental status

Priority One (red)
critical; immediate care; good prognosis to survive. ex: lung collapse or hemmorage

Priority Two (yellow)
significant injury; can be delayed

Priority Three (green)
non urgent injury; walking wounded. ex: sprains, contusitons

expectant patients (black)
injuries too severe; minimal chance of survival. ex: massive head injuries, major burns

SAVE triage
Secondary Assessment of Victim Endpoint; used for very large events; if less than 50% chance of survival, wont be treated; outcome driven; use glascow coma score

glascow coma score
used in SAVE triage; if score of 8 or above than do not treat

earthquake hospital impact
first must do an evaluation of the hospital infrastructure status; facility closure and evacuation may be mandatory; communication/utilities may be interrupted; may need alternate methods of communication; implement patient triage for those arriving; duration of medical services needed is typically 3-5 days

tornados
produce the most violent wind; can devastate a whole community; a cold dry air mass at a high altitude that overlies a warm, moist air mass close to the ground

tornado occurrence
between noon and sunset

Storm Prediction Center (SPC)
located in norman, oklahoma; responsible for monitoring, forecasting, and issuing watches and warnings related to tornadic thunderstorms

fujita tornado intensity scale
monitors speed and direction of storm/path-length; pathwidth

tornado warning
issued for a specific area when either an actual sighting of a tornado occurs or radar indicates the presence of an active tornado within the region

tornado watch
issued when the conditions within the area are conducive to the formation of tornados

tornado prehospital considerations
create several linear areas of destruction in a community; these zones of destruction are several hundred yard in width and can be several miles long; typically utilities, such as electricity and communication are destroyed; planning must be done to continue services and resond; EMS may be at trisk due to downed power lines, flooding; debris may block the roads and cause vehicle damage

tornado emergency department considerations
loss of electricity is common; back-up generators must be part of the preparedness plan; flashlights and batteries must be available; may use vehicle headlights if needed temporarily; communication may be down; traffic control around hospital; adequate water supply; access to real time weather info; most victims arrive by private vehicle

tornado related injuries
most common- complex contaminated soft tissue wounds(deep): lacerations, contusions, abrasions, and punctures
second most common- fractures
head injury is common: most common cause of death after a tornado

warning systems
active warning systems are needed and include: sirens, weather alert radios, cellphone

passive warning systems include: news media, email, television

mental health impact
PTSD, planning should include mental health interventions

chemical emergency
occurs when a chemical has been released and the release has the potential for harming people’s health

nerve agents
most common agent utilized for a toxic war agent; causes severe incapacitation and death; can enter the body through almost any route; clear, colorless, ordorless(most), originally produced for insecticide use

nerve agents: cont
man-made agent; not naturally found in the environment; breaks down slowly in the body, repeated exposures can have a cumulative effect

sarin-soman-tabun
mixes easily with water; could be used to poison water; could also be used to contaminate food to expose many people

sarin
most volatile agent; quickly evaporates from a liquid into a vapor and spreads in the environment; a short lived threat; people may not know when they are exposed because it doesnt have an odor

soman
slight odor; can become vapor if heated

tabun
has a faint fruity odor; can become vapor if heated

VX
most potent of all nerve agents; could also be used to contaminate food to expose many people; an oily liquid that is amber in color; very slow to evaporate; does not mix with water as easily as other nerve agents

signs/symptoms of nerve agents
runny nose; watery eyes; small, pinpoint pupils; blurred vision, eye pain; drooling, excessive sweating; cough, chest tightness; rapid breathing; diarrhea, increased urination; confusion; drowsiness, weakness; headache

long term effects-nerve agents
mild or moderately exposed people typically recover completely; neurological problems last 1-2 weeks post exposure; severe exposed do not survive

bioterrorism
a deliberate release of viruses, bacteria to cause harm or to make people sick or die; in the water, air and food

category A agents
highest priority agent and most concerning; spread from person to person; high death rate and cause a public health impact because of panic

category B agents
second highest priority agents; moderately easy to spread; result in moderate illness and low death rates; require specific enhancements of the CDCs lab capacity and disease monitoring

category C agents
third highest priority agents; easily available; easily produced and spread; potential for a major health impact

bioterrorism potential category A agents
anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism

anthrax
infectious disease cause by the organism Bacillus anthracis; humans get infection by skin contact, ingestion, or inhalation

botulism
infectious disease caused by the organism; clostridium botulinum; produces spores that are present in soil and marine sediment throughout the world; can be inhalational or ingestion; foodborne botulism is the most common

plague
infectious disease caused by the organism; yersinia pestis; typically transmitted by infected fleas; airborne exposure would cause pneumonic plague

smallpox
infectious disaese caused by the organism; variola virus

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The greater your distance from the source of harm, the less your _________. Exposure These chemical agents are classified as non-lethal and normally only irritate the skin, eyes, and inside of the mouth. Riot control agent WE WILL WRITE A …

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