propofol (“milk of amnesia”)
Ex: 22 cm at the patient’s lip.
If this changes, we know the tube has moved.
Usually 6 – 10 mL/kg (ideal body weight)
The amount of residual pressure in the lungs at the end of expiration that keeps alveoli partially inflated so they are more easily inflated and perfused with the next breath.
~ 5 cm H2O
# of breaths administered / minute
8 – 12 bpm
Ventilator does all the work. Set rate and tidal volume that is delivered with each breath. No accommodation for patient-initiated breaths. Administered to patient who are paralyzed or heavily sedated.
There is a set rate and tidal volume. BUT, the patient is able to initiate an extra breath. The “extra breath” is delivered by the machine, NOT performed by the patient. The delivered breath is a full-tidal volume breath (may be more than the patient needed).
A preset rate and tidal volume are set, but the machine allows the patient to initiate AND perform their own breaths as well. Positive pressure is applied to ASSIST with the breath, but it is the patient doing the WOB. The ventilator synchronizes the automated breaths with the patient’s own breaths.
Positive pressure that is applied to the airway ONLY DURING INSPIRATION. The patient initiates and performs that actual breaths, but the machine makes them easier with positive pressure. Think of really smart CPAP. Decreases the work of breathing. Patient has to have their own stable respiratory drive.
Modification of cardiac bypass. Large-bore catheters are inserted, blood is removed, oxygenated, CO2 is removed, and then returned to body.
Hypotension (We need to compensate to avoid shock)
Decreased blood flow back to heart –> INCREASED ICP, decreased myocardial and pulmonary perfusion.
Apply moisturizing agent to lips q4h.
Elevated triglyceride levels