CPR Final Exam

Which injury or illness should you call 9-1-1 for?
a person has trouble breathing

What should you do if the person does not give consent?
Do not give care but instead call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number

All of the following are indications that an emergency has occurred except:
Children playing and laughing

What are the steps to follow in an emergency?

What is the purpose of Good Samaritan laws?
To help protect people who voluntarily give care without accepting anything in return

By following standard precautions to protect yourself and the injured or ill person, you can:
Minimize the risk of disease transmission

You see a women collapse in front of you while entering the lobby of your office building. You check the scene and then check the person for consciousness, but she does not respond. What should you do next?
Call or have someone else call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number

Which method should be used to open the airway of an unresponsive victim?

Medical identification tags can help the first aider identify:
1. allergies
2.medical history
3. medications

(T, F) Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels that is unusually is a sign that an emergency may have occurred.

When should an unresponsive victim be placed on the side?
When the victim starts to vomit or when you have to leave the victim alone

If the unresponsive victim is breathing and you are staying with the victim to monitor him/her the best position to put them in is:
on the back

About how many seconds should you check for breathing?
no more than 10 seconds

What should you do when checking a conscious person?
1. ask questions
2. do not touch or move painful, injured areas on the body
3. get consent to give care

(T, F) You do not give food or drink to a shock victim because they could have to go into surgery later on in the afternoon.

(T, F) If someone is in shock you do NOT have to call 911.

You determine that a person may be in shock. Do each of the following except:
give the person water

Shock refers to the failure of what system?

What is the usual shock position?
on the back with the legs flat

Shock occurs when the body parts do not receive adequate:
oxygenated blood

(T, F) The number to the poison control number is 1-800-222-1222

What age group is most likely to die from poisoning?
20-76 year olds

In what situation would you have to use the acronym FAST?

If a person is suffering from a Diabettic Emergency and you have given them a 4oz glass of orange juice and they still do not feel better in ___ minutes then you should take them to the hospital.

If some one has a seizure you should call 911 if any of the following are involved except;
they have epilepsy and it happens often

If contact has been made with dry chemicals the victim should immediately:
brush off the dry chemical with a gloved hand and avoid contaminating yourself or others

A victim of a seizure is not allowed to have?
anything to eat or drink

Risk Factors for a stroke are?
all answers given

What are the two Types of Diabetes?
Type I and II

There are 4 types of poisoning, which one of the following is not one;
visual poison

Which place accounts for the largest amount of poisoning exposures?
the home

If I victim is overtaken by sudden illness and goes unconscious and it is important to do what?
lay them down flat and monitor their breathing, prepare to give CPR

After obtaining critical information from a victim that has ingested poisoning, the first aider should: (assume that the poisoning is not acid or alkali and the victim is responsive)
immediately call posion control center

Signs of poisoning include which of the following?
1. dizziness or nausea
2. Irregular pupil size
3. trouble breathing

What age groups of people are more likely to suffer from Febrile Seizures?
children younger than 5

(T, F) Hypothermia results from indoor or outdoor exposure.

Care for a person with heat exhaustion includes the following:
get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place

Which of the following signals are not consistent with scorpion sting?
the sting site turns a green spot

Signs of frost bite are;
the look of waxy skin and cold and discolored skin

People that are at a higher risk for hypothermia are;
1. elderly
2. homeless
3. children

Heat related illnesses include the following:
heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke

(T, F) Some Insects leave their stinger behind in the victims skin and it is best to leave the stinger in the skin and not remove it.

What should be applied to a jelly fish sting?

Which animal is a high-risk species for carrying rabies?
1. skunk
2. raccoon
3. bat

How should you care for a someone with minor frostbite on the fingers?
get the person to a warm environment and then rewarm his or her hands using skin-to-skin contact

What needs to keep covered in order for a person to retain body heat

What kind of heat emergency are you dealing with when you have to do this to the victim?
Heat stroke

If a child comes down with Rocky Mountain Fever the fever will appear;
2-14 days after the bite

Which type of dressing is used for minor wounds?
adhesive strips

The signs that a bandage is to tight are
1. coldness of the extremity
2. inability to move the fingers or toes
3. blue or pale skin amp; loss of sensation in the extremities

The most appropriate bandage for sprains and contusions would be:
an elastic roller bandage

Which answer best applies when applying an adhesive strip
1. do not touch the pad on the band aid
2. for a snug fit press the ends and edges down

Which wound results in significant bleeding?

If an open wound continues to bleed after applying direct pressure
1. Add additional dressing and contniue to apply direct pressure
2. Do not remove any blood-soaked dressings
3. Ensue the 9-1-1 or the local emergency number has been called

A device used to stabilize a fracture or dislocation is called: a

What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
1. to prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture
2. to reduce pain
3. to prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels

Which type of injury involves an open wound in which the bone has torn through the skin?
open fracture

What position should the hand be placed when splinting the wrist, hand, and fingers?
position of function

How do you care for a person with a possible head, neck or spinal injury?
Support the head in the position you find it. Do not try to align it

A ________ results in tearing of ligaments at a joint

The general care for a muscle, bone or joint injury includes the following?
Rest, Immobilize, Cold and Elevate

What should you do to keep swelling out of a sprained joint
an ice pack

An open triangular bandage can be used as a

The two classifications for fractures are
open or closed

Always stabilize an injured knee in which position?
in the position found

To further stabilize an ankle after treating with the RICE procedure
apply a splint with a pillow or blanket

The recommended treatment for muscle strains is

What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?

If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury:
splint the spine first

_____________ is a type of child abuse in which the parent or guardian fails to provide the necessary age-appropriate care to a child.
Child neglect

(T, F) A temperature of 100.1 is considered a fever, this is according to the book

SIDS most likely occurs in child ______ of age and there is no know cause of it.
4 weeks- 7 months

Viral meningitis is more common than bacterial meningitis

If you come up on to a crime scene it is best that you do which of the following.
Call 911

Children younger than ___ account for half of all exposures to poisonous substances in the United States

Medicine that works quickly to releve sudden inflamation of the airway.
Quick-relief medications

A measured dose of medicine in a dry powder form.
dry powder inhaler

A method of delvery of medication that works the fastest and works the quickest

Medicine that works slow to prevent or reverse inflamation of the airway.
Long-term control medications

A mist that is delivered over several minutes. Used most often for the elderly and children under 5.
small-volume Nebulizer

A measured dose of medicine in a mist form that goes directly into the person’s mouth
metered dose inhaler

Asthma is the ____ leading cause of hospitalization for people 15 years old and young

According to the book when administering the Epinephrine Auto-Injector you should use it on the victims ______?
mid-outer thigh

One signal of breathing emergency in an infant is
making a wheezing or high-pitched sound

You notice that a child looks panicked and cannot cough, speak or breathe. What life-threatening condition could the child be experiencing?

A child is choking on a piece of hard candy. She is conscious and coughing forcefully. What should you do?
stay with her and encourage her to continue coughing

To give chest thrust to a infant, your fingers should be placed;
just below the nipple line

What should you do for a conscious infant who is choking and cannot cough, cry or breath.
give back blows and chest thrusts to clear the airway

Signals that indicate that an infant is choking includes
both coughing forcefully or the infant cannot cough, cry or breathe

What care should you give to a conscious adult or child who is choking and cannot cough, speak or breathe?
give back blows and abdominal thrusts

When you give care to an adult who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel

In a child which of the following are signals of trouble breathing?
1. agitation
2. flushed, pale, ashen (gray), or bluish skin color
3. slow or rapid breathing

Care for a person who is unconscious and has a blocked airway includes:
give chest compressions & look for an object between compressions and breaths

When giving care to a child who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel

How should you position a conscious choking infant to give back blows?
Face-down, with the infant’s head lower then his or her chest

(T,F) The number of breaths and compressions for CPR for adults and children are the same, 30 and 2 . For infants it is 15 compressions and 1 breath.

Which of the following is a link in the Cardiac Chain of Survival?
1. early recognition and early access to the EMS system
2. early defibrillation
3. early CPR

Which of the following situations indicates that an infant needs CPR?
the infant is not breathing

About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes on a child?

If a person is suffering from pain or discomfort in the chest that lasts more than 3-5 minutes or that goes away and comes back, this person is most likely having
a heart- attack

When would you stop giving CPR?
1. when trained help arrives and relieves you
2.when you are completely exhausted
3.when the victim starts breathing on his or her own

About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes?

When performing CPR, give chest compressions at the rate of:
about 100 compressions per minute

When performing CPR on a child:
a. compress the chest straight down and fast, about 100 compressions per minute &give chest compressions that are smooth and regular

When giving CPR to an infant, about how deep should you compress the chest
about 1 1/2 inches

Effective chest compressions
1.are delivered fast, about 100 compressions per minute
2.are smooth, regular and given straight up and down
3.allow the chest to return to its normal position

What is the most prominent medical emergency in the United States?
a heart- attack

Causes of cardiac arrest in children include
1.traumatic injuries or accidents
3.airway and breathing problems

When giving chest compressions to an unresponsive choking infants, place to fingers:
one finger’s width below the nipple line

When giving rescue breaths to a child, how should you breathe into the child?
give a breath lasting about 1 second

Early CPR is important in the Cardiac Chain of Survival because
it helps circulate blood that contains oxygen to the vital organs until AED is ready to use or advanced medical personnel take over

When giving rescue breaths to an infant, you should
form an airtight seal around the infant’s mouth and nose

Where should you place your hands when giving chest compressions during CPR on an infant?
one hand on the forehead and two or three fingers on the center of the chest

How many initial rescue breaths should the first aider give?

If you do not see a child go unresponsive , the rescuer should
perform first aid for 2 minutes, then activate EMS

Always check for signs of life for no more than-
10 seconds

When performing CPR, how many compressions should be given?

When giving rescuse breaths each breath should last approximately?
1 second

The cycle of chest compressions and rescue breaths in CPR is
30 chest compressions for every 2 rescue breath

It is important to follow the links of the Cardiac Chain of Survival because:
It helps improve the chance of survival

Which is the third critical link in the chain of survival?
early defibrillation

(T, F) If a someone has a hairy chest and you can not get the AED pads to stick to the chest you will need to shave the chest.

(T, F) An AED is only to be used on a victim whose heart has stopped beating.

Place the AED pads
below the nipple line on both sides of the chest

Which are good locations for AEDs?
2.Airports and airplanes
3.Golf courses

Before using an AED
1.turn the AED on
2.give CPR until the AED is ready to be used
3.postion it next to the victim

While the AED analyzes the victim’s heart rhythm
Do NOT touch the victim

During ventricular fibrillation, the heart
quivers and cannot pump blood

Which is the most common abnormal heart rhythm in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in adults?
Ventricular fibrillation

An AED gives the victim a shock
when the shock button is pushed

First aid is intended to:
provide temporary help until proper medical care, if needed, is obtained.

The leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults is
unintentional injuries

Consent to give first aid must be obtained from every victim who is:
responsive, mentally competent of legal age.

A first aider must stay with the victim until another equally or better trained person takes over. Failure to do so would be considered:

Supplies in a first aid kit should be customized to include those items likely to be used:
on a regular basis.

Who usually recognizes a situation as an emergency and acts to help the victim?
A bystander

What is the first action a bystander should take in an emergency?
Recognize the emergency.

Refusing to acknowledge an emergency is a strategy that can interfere with which emergency action?
Deciding to help

When calling 9-1-1, which of the following information should be given to the EMS dispatch?
The victim’s location and condition
Number of persons involved
Your name and the phone number you are calling from

The most common type of personal protective equipment available for first aiders to protect against blood borne pathogens is

Which three body systems include the most important and sensitive organs?
Respiratory, circulatory, nervous

The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called ________.

Which of the following statements is true concerning infants and children?
*Infants and children have smaller respiratory structures than adults do.
*Infants’ and children’s respiratory structures are more easily obstructed than are those of adults.
*Cardiac arrest in children usually results from respiratory arrest.

The average rate of breathing in an adult at rest is ________ breaths per minute
12 to 20

Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?

For an alert, responsive victim, you can evaluate his or her ability to remember by asking:
person, place, time, and event.

Which of the following indicates a breathing problem?
1. Snoring

If the unresponsive victim is breathing, the best position for the victim is:
on the side

Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels is:
a sign

PEARL is a mnemonic used when assessing the:

At the same time you check for responsiveness, you should look at the victim to see whether he or she ________.
is breathing

The ratio of compressions to breaths when performing adult CPR is:
30 compressions to 2 breaths.

When giving abdominal thrusts to a choking victim, where should you position your hands?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel

The most common cause of airway obstruction in an unresponsive victim is:
the tongue

A victim’s chance of survival dramatically improves through:
early CPR
early defibrillation

When the heart stops beating
blood carrying oxygen becomes unavailable to the entire body.

Before using an AED:
1. give CPR until the AED is ready to be used
2. position it next to the victim.
3. turn on the AED

Verify no one is in contact with the victim:
during analysis & during the shock.

Which of the following statements about AEDs is true?
Remove patches containing medication (eg, nitroglycerin, nicotine, or pain medicine).

Shock occurs when body parts do not receive adequate:
oxygenated blood

The three major cardiovascular causes of shock include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
Respiratory insufficiency

Septic shock develops in some victims with:
bacterial infection

Anaphylactic shock
is a massive allergic reaction.

When treating a shock victim, the first aider should place blankets and/or coats:
under and over the victim.

Rapid blood loss of ____ quart(s) or more in an adult can lead to shock and death
1 quart

Which is the most serious type of bleeding?

If a dressing becomes blood-soaked, what should be done?
Apply another dressing on top of the old one

Which of the following is a sign of internal bleeding?
1. Bruises of the skin
2. Fractured ribs or bruises on the chest
3. Vomiting or coughing up blood

To treat bruises, the first aider should:
apply an ice pack over the injury for 20 minutes

Which of the following are characteristics of open wounds?
1. Break in the skin surface
2. External bleeding
3. Possible infection

Which wound is smooth-edged?

Which wound involves the cutting or tearing off of a body part?

What can safely be put on shallow wounds?
Antibiotic ointments, such as Neosporin

What are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound?
Throbbing pain
Pus discharge

What is the purpose of a dressing?
To control bleeding
To prevent infection
To absorb blood

Which of the following is used as a dressing?
Gauze pads

What is the purpose of a bandage?
To hold a dressing in place

Which bandage is most appropriate for use as a sling?
Triangular bandage

When using a cravat bandage for an injured eye, cover ________ to prevent the injured eye from moving
both eyes

An estimated 80% of all burn injuries occur
in the home

Which of the following are possible causes of thermal burns?
Contact with hot objects
Flammable vapor

An important fact related to chemical burns is
tissue destruction will continue until the chemical agent is removed

Burns that penetrate all the skin layers and into the underlying fat and muscle are considered:
third degree (full thickness).

The first step in caring for a burn victim with a first-degree or small second-degree burn is to:
run cold tap water over the area as soon as possible

A severe scalp wound may have an accompanying concussion plus:
skull fracture.
an impaled object.
a spinal injury

The first aider should place a victim with a scalp wound
with head and shoulders slightly elevated.

Which type of brain injury occurs when a blow to the head alters the function of the brain?

A blow to the head strong enough to cause a contusion at the site of impact, as well as move the brain, causing it to hit the opposite side of the skull is a
coup-contrecoup injury

Acquired brain injuries can be categorized as:

The condition where air fills a portion of the chest cavity is called ________.

What is the primary symptom of fractured ribs?

Signs and symptoms of flail chest include:
abnormal movement of part of the chest wall during breathing

What is the most important step in caring for a victim of an impaled object in the chest?
Stabilizing the object in place

Which symptom commonly accompanies a pelvis injury?
Severe pain
Massive internal blood loss

If the fracture results in the bone protruding through the skin, it is considered a(n)
open fracture

A fracture in which the bone is fragmented into more than two pieces is called

What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?

Which joints are most often sprained?
Knees and ankles

Muscle contusions result from:
a blow to the muscle

Which type of injury results when a joint is torn or stretched?

Inflammation of a tendon from overuse is called ________.

How long and how frequently should cold be applied to the injured area during the first 24 to 48 hours?
20 to 30 minutes every 2 or 3 hours

When applying compression to an injured area, the first aider should use:
an elastic roller bandage

Tendonitis usually results from:
continuous overuse

What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
To reduce pain
To prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels
To prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture

Before applying a splint, you should always:
check CSM

If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury
splint the spine first by stabilization

A shoulder dislocation is most comfortable for the victim when
a pillow or blanket is placed between the injured arm and chest

The elbow must be splinted
in the position in which it is found

When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called ________.
a heart attack

Risk factors for heart disease that cannot be changed include which of the following?

Risk factors for heart disease that can be changed include which of the following?
High blood pressure
Cigarette smoking

The chest discomfort of a heart attack may also be accompanied by:
shortness of breath.

Chest pain accompanied by cough, fever, and production of sputum is a sign of:

A ________ is anything that can harm someone if it is used in the wrong way, used by the wrong person, or used in the wrong amount.

Alcohol is a ________.

The use of ________ may require the first aider to protect the victim from hurting him- or herself and others.

Opiates have what effect on the body?
Relieve pain

If contact has been made with a poisonous plant, the victim should immediately:
wash with soap and water or rubbing alcohol

About 80% of all animal-bite injuries in the United States are caused by:

Deaths from animal attacks are almost always the result of:
pet dogs.

The virus causing rabies is usually spread through:
infected saliva

After dogs and cats, the animal most likely to bite a human is a ________.

What shape of wound do nonpoisonous snakes leave?
A horseshoe-shaped wound

The tightening of blood vessels in skin that is exposed to cold is called:

How can susceptibility to cold injuries be minimized?
Proper hydration and nutrition
Avoiding alcohol
Avoiding caffeine

Up to 50% of the body’s total heat production can be lost by radiation through the ________.

Which of the following can affect an individual’s susceptibility to cold injury?
Being physically unfit
Being very lean

When participating in outdoor activities during cold weather, you should wear ________ layers of carefully selected clothing.

What is a common reason for behavior changes?
Low blood glucose in a diabetic
Excessive cold or heat
Lack of oxygen

This type of depression typically follows a tragic event

Which of the following statements concerning depression is accurate?
Do not discourage depressed persons from crying.
A depressed person needs sympathetic silence.
A depressed person needs empathetic reassurance.

Suicide is most common in men who are:

Who is most likely to attempt suicide?
Persons who have made a previous suicide attempt
Persons who have detailed suicide plans
Persons who have a close relative who committed suicide

Wilderness first aid pertains to which of the following?
Recreation in the “wilderness”
Occupations in the “wilderness”
Residences in the “wilderness”

In cases of severe hypothermia, the first aider should:
not check the victim’s temperature.
handle the victim gently.
begin CPR and continue until the victim is evaluated by a healthcare provider

The main cause of death in a lightning strike victim is
cardiac arrest

Altitude illness includes:
acute mountain sickness (AMS).
high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).
high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE).

Which natural disaster claims the most lives in the United States?

Reach-throw-go identifies the sequence for which type of rescue?
Water rescue

Reaching for the victim requires:
an object that can be extended to the victim

Most drowning victims are males who are less than ____ years old.

If a near-drowning victim was diving:
suspect a possible spine injury

Cold-water immersion is associated with which two potential medical emergencies?
Drowning and hypothermia

If you are indoors during an earthquake, you should:
take cover under a sturdy desk or table

If you are trapped in debris after an earthquake:
tap on a pipe or wall so that rescuers can find you.

During a heat wave, you should:
stay in the coolest available location

If trapped in a vehicle during a winter storm:
exercise to maintain body heat

If you are unable to evacuate your home during a hazardous materials incident:
use plastic sheeting and tape to secure doors and windows

Humans lose heat largely through their

You are getting enough water if you are producing clear urine at least ________ times a day.

Water intoxication results from:
drinking large amounts of water

Two types of heatstroke are
classic and exertional

The first step in caring for a heatstroke victim is to
move the victim to a cool place.

Another name for the placenta is the ________.

If a woman in labor feels she has to move her bowels, delivery:
is imminent.

During which stage of labor does the amniotic sac break?

A newborn should begin to breathe:
within 30 seconds

What is the risk in a prolapsed umbilical cord presentation?
Suffocation of the baby

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