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  1. What are the five most important functions of epithelial tissue.
  2. Identify the four principal tissue types.
  3. Explain how the shape of epithelial cells is used for classification purposes. What are the four types of epithelium described in this classification process?
  4. Classify epithelium according to the layers of cells present.
  5. List the types of simple and stratified epithelium and give examples of each.
  6. Which of the following best describes the number of blood vessels in epithelial tissue: none, very few, very numerous?
  7. What is glandular epithelium? Give examples.
  8. How do exocrine glands secrete their products?
  9. Name three kinds of fibers that may be present in a connective tissue matrix. What are they made of?
  10. Compare the structure of the three major types of cartilage tissue. Locate and give an example of each type.
  11. List the components of whole blood and discuss the basic function of each fraction or cell type.
  12. List the three major types of muscle tissue.
  13. Identify two basic types of cells in nervous tissue.
  14. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation? What causes each?
  15. Name three types of fibrous connective tissue and briefly describe each.
  16. Describe the regenerative capacity of muscle and nerve tissues.
  17. What makes bone tissue hard?

Critical Thinking Questions

  1. A baby was born with congenital problems in the skeleton and muscle systems. From what primary germ layer do these systems arise? What is the earliest possible developmental stage where a problem could have impacted just one primary germ layer?
  2. Many athletes work to reduce their body fat to the lowest possible percent. What are some of the functional and structural consequences that could develop if too little body fat were present?
  3. If a tendon is badly damaged, it may need to be replaced surgically. Based on the structural and functional differences, explain why it must be replaced by a tendon rather than a ligament.
  4. If a small but deep cut involving skin and muscle occurs, predict which tissue will probably heal first and which will heal more completely. Explain your answer.
  5. When a joint swells, sometimes it is necessary to remove a thick colorless liquid from the joint. What is it, where did it come from, and what is its normal function.

Chapter 5 Study Guide Answer Key

  1. What are the five most important functions of epithelial tissue. protection, sensory function, secretion, absorption, and excretion
  2. Identify the four principal tissue types. epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
  3. Explain how the shape of epithelial cells is used for classification purposes. What are the four types of epithelium described in this classification process? Epithelial cells can be flat and plate-like (squamous). They can be cube-like (cuboidal). The cells can be higher than wide (columnar). They can also be higher than wide with some cells not reaching the membrane (pseudostratified columnar).
  4. Classify epithelium according to the layers of cells present. Arrangement of epithelial cells in a single layer is called simple epithelium. If the epithelial cells are layered one on another, the tissue is called stratified epithelium. If the epithelial cells are layered in a relaxed state but can form a single layer when stretched, the tissue is called transitional epithelium.
  5. List the types of simple and stratified epithelium and give examples of each. Simple squamous: alveoli, lining of blood and lymph vessels, pericardium, peritoneum Simple cuboidal: glands and ducts, ducts and tubules of the kidney Simple columnar: lining of stomach, intestine, uterus, uterine, respiratory tract Pseudostratified columnar: air passages of respiratory system, reproductive system Stratified squamous: skin (keratinized), vagina, mouth, esophagous (nonkeratinized) Stratified cuboidal: sweat gland ducts, pharynx, epiglottis Stratified transitional: wall of the urinary bladder
  6. Which of the following best describes the number of blood vessels in epithelial tissue: none, very few, very numerous? None
  7. What is glandular epithelium? Give examples. Glandular epithelium is specialized for secretory activity. They may function as one cell or many cells together. Exocrine glands empty their contents into ducts while endocrine glands empty their contents into the blood.
  8. How do exocrine glands secrete their products? Apocrine: pinch off distended end Holocrine: rupture completely Merocrine: directly through plasma membrane
  9. Name three kinds of fibers that may be present in a connective tissue matrix. What are they made of? collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers. They are made of protein.
  10. Compare the structure of the three major types of cartilage tissue. Locate and give an example of each type. Hyaline: shiny and transluscent; respiratory tubes, covering the ends of bones Fibrocartilage: rigid matrix, strong white fibers; spinal cord and knee Elastic cartilage: stong, flexible elastic fibers; external ear, larynx
  11. List the components of whole blood and discuss the basic function of each fraction or cell type. Blood is composed of plasma and blood cells. The blood cells are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes. The RBC transport gases, the WBC destroy harmful microorganisms, platelets assist in blood clot formation. The plasma transports nutrients and waste products, regulates the pH of body fluids, and helps maintain body temperature.
  12. List the three major types of muscle tissue. The three major types of muscle tissue are skeletal (striated voluntary), smooth (nonstriated involuntary), and cardiac (striated involuntary).
  13. Identify two basic types of cells in nervous tissue. The two basic types of cells in the nervous system are the neurons, which are the conducting cells, and neuroglia cells, which are the support cells.
  14. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation? What causes each? The four cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor (redness), caused by increased blood flow; calor (heat), caused by increased blood flow; tumor (swelling), caused by the accumulation of inflammatory exudates and clot formation, and dolor (pain), caused by chemical mediators released by tissue injury and cell death.
  15. Name three types of fibrous connective tissue and briefly describe each. Areolar: stretchable, elastic glue, interwoven collagenous and elastic fibers; found between other tissues and organs Adipose: many fat cells, protective pads, food reserve, insulation; found under the skin Reticular: reticular fibers and reticular cells, filtration/defense function; found in the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow  Dense fibrous: many fibers, few fibroblasts, irregular and regular types; found in the tendons (regular) and ligaments (irregular)
  16. Describe the regenerative capacity of muscle and nerve tissues. Muscle and nervous tissues have limited capacities to regenerate. Muscle tissue is often replace by connective tissue. Nerves outside the central nervous system can regenerate slowly. Normal brain and spinal cord neurons don not grow back when injured.
  17. What makes bone tissue hard? Inorganic salts/minerals make bone tissue hard.

Critical Thinking Questions

  1. A baby was born with congenital problems in the skeleton and muscle systems. From what primary germ layer do these systems arise? What is the earliest possible developmental stage where a problem could have impacted just one primary germ layer? The skeletal and muscular systems arise from the mesoderm. The earliest time in development when only these tissue types would be affected is during or shortly after gastrulation.
  2. Many athletes work to reduce their body fat to the lowest possible percent. What are some of the functional and structural consequences that could develop if too little body fat were present? A proper amount of fat in the body is necessary. Fat is used to protect various body organs like the kidney. It acts as an insulator to help maintain body temperature and acts as a source of stored energy for the body.
  3. If a tendon is badly damaged, it may need to be replaced surgically. Based on the structural and functional differences, explain why it must be replaced by a tendon rather than a ligament. A tendon is made up of collagen fibers and connects muscle to bone. This provides density and flexibility with great tensile strength but no elasticity. Ligaments, which connect bones to bones, are irregular and made up of predominantly elastic fibers. This provides less strength and more flexibility. Therefore, the ligament would not function well as a tendon.
  4. If a small but deep cut involving skin and muscle occurs, predict which tissue will probably heal first and which will heal more completely. Explain your answer. The skin will probably heal faster and more completely. It is made of epithelial tissue, which heals faster and more completely that the muscle tissue.
  5. When a joint swells, sometimes it is necessary to remove a thick colorless liquid from the joint. What is it, where did it come from, and what is its normal function. The fluid is synovial fluid. It is produced by the synovial membrane surrounding the join; its function is to reduce the friction between bones in movable joints.

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