Community Nursing Midterm

Determinants of health
The range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status are known as determinants of health.

Social factors
Health services
Individual behavior
Biology and genetics

Examples of Social Determinants
Social determinants are societal factors that affect health, functioning and quality of life outcomes.
education, poverty, crime.

-Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods
-Social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination
-Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash
-Social support and social interactions
-Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones
-Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty
-Quality schools
-Transportation options
-Public safety
-Residential segregation

Examples of Physical Determinants
Natural environment, such as plants, weather, or climate change
Built environment, such as buildings or transportation
Worksites, schools, and recreational settings
Housing, homes, and neighborhoods
Exposure to toxic substances and other physical hazards
Physical barriers, especially for people with disabilities
Aesthetic elements, such as good lighting, trees, or benches

Infectious disease chain of causation
portal of exit
mode of transmission
portal of entry

investigate all exposures, present work, residence, environment, past work, activities, resources and referrals, educate.

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry; health effects of toxins in the environment

Multiple Causation
an event occurs as a result of several factors acting in combination

Environmental Health Hazards
chemical, physical, biological and Nuclear/Radioactive

Precautionary Approach
ANA , if research shows a possible toxic relationship, air on the side of caution. Guide our practice by this ethical principle

Distributive Justice
Equal services to all regardless of status. Focuses on how the burdens and benefits of a particular system are distributed.

what is the role of the community health nurse
the nurse is a screener, counselor, advocate, educator, carry out interventions, researcher. Focus on communities strengths, competencies, risks, problems and needs of a population.

Public Health Intervention Wheel
disease and health event investigation
referral and follow-up,
case management,
delegated functions,
health teaching,
coalition building,
community organizing,
social marketing,
policy development, policy enforcement.

A community is a number of people who share a distinct geographical location, political, belief, interest, activity, or other characteristic


community of solution
group of people who come together to solve a problem that affects all of them (water pollution problem)

Population Focused Nursing Practice
this practice of holistic nursing focuses on entire population;
is based on assessment of the population’s health status; considers the broad determinants of health;
emphasizes all levels of prevention;
intervenes with communities, systems, individuals, and families

primary function of Public health nursing
Assurance- getting the community access to services- IE: WIC

Policy Development – guide to determine present and future decisions for publics health. IE: Public hearing, inspections, certifications

Assessment- Measure and Monitor- IE: DM screening, Monitoring water wells, lead surveillance

Primary Prevention
health promotion, Specific protection(immunizations), and Disease Prevention.

Secondary Prevention
SCREENING, Early detection, diagnosis, and Early treatment to stop the progression of the disease and try to eliminate it

Tertiary Prevention
Focuses on restoration and rehabilitation w/ the goal of returning the individual to an optimal level of functioning.

What level is Education
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary

What is epidemiology
Study of relationships between a population and health determinants in the presence or absence of disease.
Then apply strategies to get control

If faced with a current event from NY times, What is the role of the nurse
Intervene at certain levels

Scope of epidemiology
any kind of disease of injury is included, no specific number of cases, no definition of geographic limits, encompasses any time period

Three Types of epidemiology
descriptive, analytical, and experimental

Descriptive Epidemiology
Who was affected? Where were they affected? When were they affected? What is the problem?

Analytical Epidemiology
determine probable cause, mode of transmission, methods of prevention of disease mainly by comparing diseased groups and healthy groups

Experimental Epidemiology
Test of hypothesis about a disease, vaccine, or drug

Public Health Triad
Host, Agent, and Environment
The triangle can be used in any aspect of public health
There is many opportunities to change the system.
It is moveable, it is a process, apply interventions
It is never stable, always changing , and adapting.

You can intervene at any point!

age, genetics(DM, Cardiac DX), immunological state(HIV, Chemo), personal behavior, where you live, education, wealth, where you live.

-a factor such as a microorganism,
chemical( POISON, ALLERGENS, Radiation )
nutritive element (IRON deficiency)
physical factor (VIOLENCE, PSYCHOLOGICAL experience, TRAUMA)
whose presence or absence is essential for the occurrence of a particular disease or condition

All Physical things and conditions that surround an organism including other living things, soil, water, air, weather, and climate

Air Quality
Communication-personal space->spread of TB when talking

Data Collection
Usually occurs via
physiologic assessment

# of NEW cases occurring in a population during a specified time period

Prevalence Rate
# of persons with a characteristic divided by the total number in population.

numerator- all new cases appearing during a given time
Denominator- population at risk during the same period.

the total number of cases of a specific disease in existence in a given population at a given time.

# of ppl with a given health problem/ Total # of people in the group

Active Natural Immunity
Long Lasting Immunity acquired by direct exposure to an antigen. example: when a person has an infection and develops antibodies.(Chicken Pox)

Active Artificial Immunity
develops when an immunization is given and the body produces antibodies in response to exposure to a killed or attenuated virus

Passive Natural Immunity
temporary immunity; body acquires antibodies produced by another person; through placenta or milk

Passive Artificial Immunity
Temporary Resistance through inoculation of antibodies to boost a susceptible persons immunity.

Immune globulin- Hep A , Measles
Hyperimmune Globulins- Hep B, Rabies, Tetanus, Varicella

Herd Immunity
Immunization where the vast majority are immunized and protect the few who aren’t

Cross Immunity
person’s immunity to one agent provides that person with immunity to another related agent
Small Pox = Cow Pox

Framework of Environmental Health
Roles Of Nurse
Basic Ecological Principles
Carry out an individual health history- IPREPARE

Roy Adaptation Model
Coping Processes, innovator and Stabilizer

Social Justice
All people and social classes are treated equally.

Precautionary Principle
When there is scientific uncertainty about potentially serious harm from chemicals or technologies, decision makers should act to prevent harm to humans and the environment.


Unnatural Causes
movie about people of different classes and how stress can make a person more susceptible to sickness and live a shorter life

place matters, neighborhood as a predictor of health: Heart disease, asthma, obesity, diabetes, low birth weight.

Polio Crusade
Lack of informed consent
Panic via advertising from march of dimes(FEAR)
administration without FDA approval
experimental testing via administration to disabled children

Public Health Ethics
the principles and values that guide the actions designed to promote health and prevent injury and disease in a population.

Trends affecting nursing practice
aging of America, immigration, globalization(internet), consumer involvement, outcomes management, ethics, autonomy, ACA-affordable care act

The study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms. Effects can be immediate or need time to build up (ex: lead poisoning)

Presence of disease/condition out of proportion to everywhere else

Aggregate A population group Assessment Systematic data collection about a population. includes monitoring the population’s health status and providing information about the health of the community WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Public Health 3 components assessment (needs) assurance (resources) policy (intervention) PH is prevention and promotion of population health at the federal and state level WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing Individual is the focus. Nursing is a response to a sick person’s inability to administer self-care. Assumes people can exert full control over environment in pursuit of health when people cannot control their environment. …

Nursing theories provide the basis for care of the community and family Nurses working in the community should have an understanding of the foundations of community health nursing, the principles of community health nursing, and health promotion and disease prevention …

Social Determinants of Health conditions in which ppl live and work Health care Disparities gaps in health care experienced by one population compared with another WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

aggregate population group with common characteristics community based nursing minor acute and chronic care that is comprehensive and coordinated where people work, live, or attend school; illness care provided outside the acute care setting WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

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