o Right ventricle pumps to the pulmonary veins- resistance making it hard for the flow of blood from the RV→ Lungs
• Mobilize body’s nervous system, fight or flight response. Regulatory of organ system. Increases heart rate and force of contraction, constricts blood vessels
o Decrease blood volume of blood plasma. Loss of blood from hemorrhage or dehydration and is salt depletion
o Tachycardia, diminished blood pressure, pale, dizzy, faint, nauseated
• Extreme allergic reaction to antigen to the body is hypersensitive, causing bronchoconstriction
i. Severe infection that can lead to organ dysfunction and death (hypotension (inadequate cardiac output)→ ischemia (decrease tissue perfusion)→ death of organs)
closest to the throat
• Severe pain in chest that spreads and caused by inadequate blood supply to the heart
• Valvular disease by narrowing of orifice of mitral valve of heart and increase organ size.
• Valve is located between left atrium and left ventricle
o Inflammatory disease
o Occluding of coronary arteries leading to myocardial ischemia
d. Both b and c are correct. e. a, b, and c are correct.”
affecting other structures. d. arterial blood pressure during expiration exceeds
that during inspiration.
d. It usually damages the mitral valve.
endocardium, and valves.
c. It may occur following dental or bladder
d. pulmonary edema
c. cardiac dysrhythmias
c. rapid heart rate.”
c. septic shock.
o TA is failure of normal separation and division of the embryonic outflow track into a pulmonary artery and an aorta, resulting in a single vessel that exits the heart. Types I-III
Response Feedback: Left heart failure in infants is manifested as poor feeding and sucking, often leading to failure to thrive and periorbital edema.
o Tricuspid atresia is failure of the tricuspid valve to develop; consequently, there is no communication from the right atrium to the right ventricle. In regurgitation, blood moves backwards, but is not obstructed. In stenosis, blood flow is narrowed, but not totally obstructed. In transposition, the two great vessels are on opposite sides.
o Nonfusion of endocardial cushions. Can be complete, partial, and transitional. Usually has left-right shunt and pulmonary over circulation
o If the degree of shunting is significant and not corrected, the child is at risk for developing pulmonary hypertension. Cyanosis is not present at first if the shift is left to right. The defect does not lead to valve damage. May be asymptomatic
o An opening in the middle of the atrial septum is referred to as an ostium secundum ASD.
o PS is a narrowing or stricture of the pulmonary valve causing resistance to blood flow from the right ventricle → pulmonary artery= reduction of flow of blood to the lungs. 80% right ventricular outflow tract obstruction
o Patent ductus arterious and coarctation of aorta (constriction of aorta) are disorders found in infants of mothers with PKU
o Rheumatic fever is complication of an infection caused by strep bacteria (strep throat/scarlet fever) that may injure heart valves
o Maternal conditions, such as intrauterine viral infections, especially rubella, lead to congenital abnormalities.
Response Feedback: Valvular stenosis occurs when the valve opening is constricted and narrowed
Response Feedback: The newborn will have weak or absent femoral pulses because blood flow is obstructed near the lower extremities- the aorta is constricted
Response Feedback: PDA is failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close. The continued patency of this vessel allows blood to flow from the higher-pressure aorta to the lower-pressure pulmonary artery, causing a left-to-right shunt. It could decrease systemic blood flow, not increase it.
Response Feedback: The most common type of congenital heart defect is a VSD.
Response Feedback: The infant with trisomy 18 could present with a ventricular septal defect, a patent ductus, or pulmonary stenosis.