Cognitive Psychology

Theories, principles and concepts form the integral tenets in cognitive psychology. As a professional in psychology, one needs to employ the use of theories, principles and concepts to be in a position to discharge the responsibilities occasioned by the field. Based on this a review of he three tenets is done which finds that without the three tenets, the field of psychology cannot achieve its goals. Theories Psychological theories play a critical role in the field. Much of what is known as emerged due to the various psychology theories.

For instance, behavioral theories have demonstrated how conditioning aids the learning exercise through facilitating the acquisition of new behaviors and information. While some theories may have fallen out of place, a good number of them still play a great deal in the development of students. Students and scholars in the field of psychology are n a position to understand human behavior and thought thanks to the psychology theory. Simply put, learning theories assists individuals in gaining deeper and richer insights in regards to various phenomena.

On the other hand, cognitive theories are useful in understanding internal states, for instance, problem solving, motivation, attention, decision making and thinking. On this basis, theory is useful in explaining differences in ability to learn and other issues relating to human development (Frankl, 2004). Principles Principles are a necessary guide to the conduct of events in any field of operation. The principles aid individuals to relate with other while executing the different daily chores. The need for principles is premised on the idea that individuals are analyze different types of information in certain ways.

Understanding the principles in the field f psychology helps people to work in a professional and more effective way (Frankl, 2004). The principle of cause is very important as it helps in the establishment of information regarding an issue. This is however necessary if the necessary conditions are provided. In psychology, the scientific process relies upon establishing causes by investigating the effects upon objects (Frankl, 2004). Principle may be taken as a final cause. This is in reference to the idea that the principle becomes the end goal, which offers guidance in decision-making.

In this case, principles are necessary in the determination of actions taken to address an issue at hand. Principles are applied as rules of behavior both in scientific and moral issues (Frankl, 2004). Concepts Concepts are of great value in psychology since they present a cognitive unit underlying meaning. A concept may thus present a mental symbol or an abstract idea. In simple terms, a concept is a unit of knowledge. In philosophical thought, concepts are categorized in the ontological field (Laurence and Margolis, 2009).

A concept must present sufficient conditions in giving descriptions that unequivocally determines an extension. In reference to the containment model, the boundaries of a concept are clear. On the other hand, the inferential mode leaves open the confines of a concept implying that it can be used in making conclusions or inferences. Concepts thus play an important role in structuring a discipline. Psychology is underpinned by an analysis of concepts. Towards the development of scientific knowledge, concepts hold a crucial position.

Research in psychology or in any other field is premised on concepts (Laurence and Margolis, 2009). Themes Theme 1: We are active information processors. The first theme is premised on the idea that individuals are active processors of information. This is supported by the fact that the brain stores an awesome level of information. Language development also presents a key area, which underscores the point that individuals are active processors of information. The complexity of language notwithstanding the brain is I a position to code it.

Arising mistakes can be traced to rational strategies. Some information is discarded immediately it becomes unrequited in the brain (Brain, 2002). Theme 2: Cognitive processes are deemed efficient and accurate (Brain, 2002). For instance, understanding sentences is better when the wording is in the affirmative. Positively denoted tasks are also easier to comprehend as opposed to negatively worded ones. Cognitive processing allows people to respond differently to tasks depending on the associated rewards or punishments attributable.

Theme 3: Positive information is handled better as compared to negative information(Brain, 2002). Cognitive processes are interconnected, as they do not operate in isolation. For instance, decision-making depends upon perception, general knowledge, language and memory. It is a fact that all high mental engagements demand careful integration of basic cognitive processes. Due to this, problem solving, decision-making and logical reasoning are complex aspects. Theme 4: Cognitive processes are interconnected in nature (Brain, 2002).

A good number of cognitive processes rely on both top-up and bottom-down processing. Top-down processing focuses on the influence of expectations, memory and concepts on the cognitive processes. On the other hand, the bottom-down processing centers on the value of information coming from the stimuli. The two processing mechanisms work in a simultaneous way to ensure that cognitive processing is fast and accurate. The most important theme is based on how information is attained and stored before being processed for use.

As the three tenets play critical role in the development of the psychology profession, theories, principles and concepts are equally valuable. Theories are learnt and internalized to form a basis upon which issues are examined. Te concepts in psychology and principles also need to be learnt and stored in the brain if they are to make a meaningful contribution to the development of psychology. The third theme borders on the value of positivity. Psychology as a science, which helps humans solve issues through learning heavily, leans focuses on reinforcing or retracting behavior.

Psychology thus relies on this theme in improving knowledge on theories, principles and concepts. For instance, psychology students link improved mastery of the three tenets to better performance of tasks both in class and later in their different professional duties. The fourth theme focuses on the interconnected nature of cognitive processes. Theories offer guides in studying various connections between processes and issues. Concepts equally focus on making connections between symbols and inferences (Hergenhahn, 2005).

Principles show the connection between the conduct of activities and rules. Consequently, the theme of interconnectivity is very important in the field of psychology with particular reference to the three tenets. Cognition is in most cases adaptive but not in all instances (Myers, 2004). The study of malpractices helps in the understanding of emergent issues. Cognitive processes interact with even non-cognitive processes. Cognition should be studied through various scientific approaches. All research arising from cognition may be applied to situations and aid understanding of phenomena.

Research is based o seeking connections between different phenomena (Myers, 2004). Every research must employ a theoretical or conceptual framework. Literary, it is a principle in research that either of the two frameworks be used in carrying out studies. Other principles of research like objectivity must be observed. The overall aim of any research is to raise information and subsequently storing it, this is in tandem with the first theme. As a result, the choice of the theme is sound. The second choice of the theme of positivity is sound because the concept is a big influence on research findings.

For instance, if a researcher wants to attain convincing results, then s/he is positive in the sense tat the motivation is to achieve a good result. Thus, the pursuit of good results implies that positivity is an attribute, which affects how psychologists go about their professional duties. Example In a clinical set up, a psychologist may pursue the reasons behind a client’s description of a certain event in a certain way. This may yield information regarding the mindset of the person in question. This may aid the psychologist to tell whether the individual is depressed or not.

Based on what the psychologist understands the problem is, a decision is reached regarding corrective measures. Such information may be stored and kept for future use in interpreting or solving similar cases. Based on the information gathered a connection can be made regarding description of events and mental status of an individual. Conclusion The three tenets form the basis upon which the themes are selected. The theme relating to the ability to process information and subsequently store it proves critical. This is based on the realization that theory, principle and concept heavily rely on this theme.

Reference List Brain, C. (2002). Advanced psychology: applications, issues and perspectives. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Frankl, V. (2004). Man’s search for meaning (rev. ed. ). New York, NY, USA: Washington Square Press. Hergenhahn, B. (2005). An introduction to the history of psychology. Belmont, CA, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 528–536. Laurence, S. & Margolis, E. (2009). “Concepts and Cognitive Science”. In concepts: Core Readings, MIT Press pp. 3–81. Myers, A. (2004). Motivation and work. Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Running Head: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

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