cognitive neuroscience

implicit memory
is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Infants acquiring language is an example of implicit problem-solving

implicit memory example
A classic example is amnesic patients like HM & Clive Wearing who are given a word like “assassin” to memorize, & who can not recall it later. However, given a word fragment, such as “__ss_ss__” they are more likely to produce “assassin” without remembering when they heard it. They have lost conscious access to the source memory, but the implicit retrieval is improved.

implicit memory and awareness
Implicit memory is not accompanied by conscious awareness that one has a memory; the memory’s existence is inferred only from the effects it has on behavior. Implicit memories may be retrieved without an intention to remember. Priming effects are used extensively to test for implicit memory.

implicit memory and lesions
Lesions to striatum: Disrupts procedural memory [classical conditioning / implicit]. Amnesic — poor in Explicit memory PD — poor in implicit memory

explicit memory
Refers to memory w/ conscious awareness, namely, memory of which the individual is aware, can declare its existence, & comment on its content, either verbally or non-verbally.

explicit memories / declarative memories
• Such memories are known as declarative memories ; They are the kind of memory to which we typically refer in everyday convo when we ask “Did you remember to call your aunt to thank her for your birthday present” or “do you remember who won the academy award for best actor or actress?

spatial memory
is the part of memory responsible for recording information about one’s environment and its spatial orientation.

episodic and semantic memory is….
remembering versus knowing

episodic memory
Refers to memories that have a specific source in time, space, & life circumstances.
Episodic memories are often autobiographical in nature, in that we can travel mentally back in time to relive the experience.
Episodic memories may turn into semantic memories over time.
May refer to an event that we experienced in Paris, Ottawa or in high school.
We often have an autobiographical source memory about a specific time, place, and set of circumstances when our episodic memory was acquired.

episodic memories typically…
1.Have reference to oneself
2.Are organized around a specific time period
3.Are remembered consciously, in such as way that we seem to be able to re-experience them
4.Are susceptible to forgetting
5.Are context-dependent, w/ respect to time, space, relationships w/ others, & other circumstances

semantic memories
Involve facts about the world, about ourselves, & about other knowledge that we share w/ a community.
Semantic memories are independent of the spatial & temporal context in which they were acquired.
May refer to our knowledge of Paris as the capital of France, or Ottawa as the capital of Canada, or the knowledge that we attended a particular high school.

semantic memories generally…
1.Have reference to shared knowledge w/ others
2.Are not organized around a specific time period
3.Give a “feeling of knowing” rather than a fully conscious recollection of the original event
4.Are less susceptible to forgetting than specific episodes
5.Are relatively independent of context

working memory
According to our functional framework, sensory input goes to “working stage” which is part of working memory which, in turn, allows info to be actively maintained & manipulated. Working memory allows us temporarily to retain small amounts of info in an accessible form.

working memory and capacity
Many everyday tasks call upon this working memory capacity, such as keeping a phone number in mind for the several seconds it takes to dial the number. Working memory also gives us a sense of continuity over time, by embedding our immediate conscious experiences into a longer psychological present.

experiencing an episode [1 of 3]
visual cortex encodes the sight of a coffee cup

storage [2 of 3]
MTL binds widespread cortical memory traces of the coffee cup and its semantic associations

episodic recall [3 of 3]
visual cortex decodes MTL based neocortical memory bundle and reconstructs the coffee cup

the working memory is the domain of problem solving, language, and thought
It is “the set of mental processes holding limited info in a temporarily accessible state in service of cognition.

why do we need working memory
We need working memory to perform mental arithmetic, to carry on a convo, or to solve a pathfinding problem. You cannot understand the sentence you are reading now without keeping words, ideas & syntax in immediate memory.

Prefrontal cortex and working memory
The Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in working memory. It is situated in front of the motor cortex in both humans & other primates. The macaque monkey has been the primary experimental animal in many studies of working memory.

frontal lobes and working memory
Working memory is closely linked to the critical role the frontal lobes play in the temporal organization of behavior & controlling the proper sequence in which various mental operations are enacted.

Baddeley experiments [1 of 2]
In proposing the concept of working memory, Baddeley & colleagues reasoned that subjects should have difficulty keeping items in memory if asked to perform other tasks simultaneously that disrupt specific components of the working memory system.

Baddeley experiments [2 of 2]
Baddeley & others have shown that asking subjects to repeat aloud a simple utterance (like the word “the”) during retention can dramatically reduce short-term memory for verbal info, presumably because the repetitive speech task disrupts the rehearsal mechanism of the phonological loop. Importantly, the same repetitive speech task has a much smaller effect on working memory for visuospatial info because holding such info does not make as much use of the phonological loop. Meanwhile, other tasks (visually tracking a moving object) have been found to disrupt visuospatial, but not verbal, maintenance.

amnesia and clive wearing [1 of 5]
Clive Wearing, who has lived with a dense amnesia, when a viral infection destroyed some brain areas for memory. Over a few days, Wearing was transformed from a rising young musician to a man for whom each waking moment feels like the first, with almost no recollection of the past, & no ability to learn for the future.

amnesia and clive wearing [2 of 5]
While he cannot recall a single specific event, some aspects of his memory are spared. He can carry on a normal, intelligent conversation. Some short-term memory is spared, allowing him to stay w a topic over several seconds. He has retained general world knowledge, an extensive vocab, & a tacit understanding of social conventions. Wearing also remains a skilled musician, able to play complex piano pieces from sheet music. Though he cannot remember specific events, he does recall a limited number of general facts about his life.

amnesia and clive wearing [3 of 5]
Wearing’s history suggests that amnesia is selective – certain kinds of memory may survive while others are lost. Skills like the ability to speak or play the piano are distinct from our memories of specific events. Thus, memory is not unitary, but consists of different types.

amnesia and clive wearing [4 of 5]
Organic amnesia – the kind that involves damage to both MTL’s – interferes with episodic learning & recall.

amnesia and clive wearing [5 of 5]
Semantic learning is impaired, but not semantic retrieval Wearing still understands the world, his previous semantic knowledge is remarkably intact. But he cannot learn new ideas. And he can neither learn nor remember specific events.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [1 of 7]
In the case of HM we know exactly where the lesion occurred. This makes him very rare. Most brain injuries are very messy, can spread wider than the visible lesions, & may change over time.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [2 of 7]
Both sides of the MTL were removed as accurately as was possible at the time. The extent of HM’s brain damage & functional deficits have been verified w/ great care, in more than 100 published articles.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [3 of 7]
The cognitive neuroscience of memory arguably began w/ Herbert Scoville & Brenda Milner’s report of a memory disorder in HM after bilateral removal of his medial temporal lobes to control severe epileptic seizures.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [4 of 7]
As a result of a head injury from a bicycle collision when he was a young boy, HM was beset w/ epileptic fits that increased in frequency & severity into his late 20s. As a last treatment, scoville performed an operation in which he removed tissue in & around the hippocampus on both sides of HM’s brain. While the surgery reduced HM’s seizures, it had a profound & unexpected impact on his memory.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [5 of 7]
HM could not remember any of the events of his life thereafter – the people he met, the things he did, events taking place in the world around him. Even today, he cannot keep track of his age, & can no longer recognize himself in the mirror bc he is unfamiliar w/ his changed appearance.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [6 of 7]
In addition to this anterograde (post-damage) memory deficit, HM also can’t remember events or experiences from the years immediately before the surgery, a retrograde amnesia. While his episodic (autobiographical) memory loss is acute, other cognitive functions seem to be intact. He can reason, solve problems, & carry on a normal convo. His intelligence is normal, & he has retained his language abilities.

Amnesia – Patient HM: the best studied amnesia patient [7 of 7]
HM has intact short-term memory. He performs like healthy controls on tests of working memory, like the digit span task.
He can discuss the immediate present, using his general knowledge of the world. He is conscious, has normal voluntary control over his actions, & appears to be emotionally well adjusted. It is only when his episodic memory is tested that he reveals that he simply cannot remember the past, or learn new memories for the future.

amnesia is an loss of memory
Amnesia is any loss of memory for personal experiences & other info, despite otherwise normal cognitive functions. The cause can be organic, including infection, stroke, tumor, drugs, oxygen deprivation, epilepsy & degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Amnesia can also be psychogenic, resulting from trauma or suggestion.

organic amnesia
Organic amnesia is caused by bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes, which includes the hippocampal formation. It generally reveals:

organic amnesia [1 of 4]
Impaired memory but preserved perception, cognition, intelligence & action. (Amnesic people perform normally on standard tests of intelligence, but are impaired on standard tests of memory. They can play chess, solve crossword & jigsaw puzzles, comprehend complex instructions & reason logically

organic amnesia [2 of 4]
Impaired long term but not working memory. (amnesic people have a normal digit span. They are impaired, however they are distracted. The same holds for words, stories, visual patterns, faces, melodies, smells & touch

organic amnesia [3 of 4]
Impaired recent but not remote memories (Memory loss is most noticeable for events learned after the onset of the disorder, as well as in the period immediately preceding it, but not for info acquired years before. That is amnesia victims have an anterograde amnesia that extends into the future but a limited retrograde amnesia. The length & severity of retrograde amnesia varies

organic amnesia [4 of 4]
Impaired explicit but not implicit memory. [Anterograde (post injury) memory loss applies only to information that can be remembered consciously or explicitly. Learning, retention & retrieval of memory without awareness or implicitly is normal )

metacognition example
Clive Wearing knows that something is terribly wrong, but he has no idea what it is. “I’ve just woken up for the first time. I’m conscious for the first time” is his only way to express it. For more than 20 years, he has expressed the most intense frustration w/ his condition. Wearing must therefore have some metacognitive conception of his own cognitive functioning, unlike patient HM, for example, who is spared the emotional pain of sensing what he is missing.

metacognition is…
Metacognition is the ability to know our own cognitive functions, & to be able to use that knowledge. Many neurological patients who are severely impaired have no metacognitive insight that anything is wrong.
For retrieval to be effective, info at retrieval must overlap w/ the info that was learned or encoded. The person must have the goal of retrieving memories & paying attention to cues, as well as mentally searching for the desired memory. Automatic Retrieval of a memory often occurs once the cue is found. Strategic or purposeful retrieval, however, is attention demanding & is impaired by any effortful competing task.

metacognition and why its important
Metacognition is an important aspect of normal memory retrieval. A memory trace may be retrieved spontaneously, or more often by cues or reminders. A cue could be as simple as “Recall the words you just studied” or as complex as “describe in detail what you did today” the kind of self monitoring we tend to do when we try to remember a missing word is a kind of metacognition that involves prefrontal cortex

explicit thinking
has clear, conscious goals & subgoals, & clearly defined steps for getting from a starting point to a solution. We can think of mental arithmetic as an everyday example.

Explicit Thinking involves greater executive control, higher mental workload, more frequent conscious access, & wider recruitment of cortical regions in pursuit of explicit goals

Implicit thinking
(may be more common) since we learn & practice many kinds of skills from early on in life. These problem solving skills become more proficient, implicit (unconscious) & automatic w/ practice. Understanding this sentence is an example, or completing a sentence that is predictable, so that we can tell what its last words are likely to be.

implicit problem solving
takes less executive control than the explicit kind, less conscious access, less cognitive load, & less cortical involvement. It is much more dependent, on the other hand, on long term memory & highly practiced routines. Very often, the unstated goal of learning is to turn explicit problem-solving into the implicit kind.

explicit problem solving
needs to create a mental representation of both the current situation & the goal. Furthermore, these representations have to be linked by establishing which actions are needed to transform the current state into the goal state.

Problems therefore have 3 general characteristics: [1 of 3]
An initial state, or the state in which the problem solver sorts out the givens;

Problems therefore have 3 general characteristics: [2 of 3]
A goal state, or the solution state that the problem solver tries to achieve

Problems therefore have 3 general characteristics: [3 of 3]
The steps that the problem solver takes to transform the initial state into the goal state that initially may not be obvious.

solving can be thought of as finding a path thru a maze of choice-points between possible sub-goals toward a final goal.

A puzzle called the Towers of Hanoi is frequently used to investigate brain areas involved in explicit problem-solving. The task is to move the disks between the rods, one step at a time, until that they match the goal.
The Towers of Hanoi are quite sensitive to frontal lobe damage; the WSC task can be used to test for mental flexibility in problem-solving
Brain areas activated during solving of the Towers of Hanoi include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Brain areas involved in adapting to new rules – or task switching – overlap w/ areas active for other executive tasks in frontal & parietal lobes

Flexibility is an important aspect of successful explicit problem-solving. People may get “fixed” in problem-solving strategies: a standard task used to investigate flexibility in problem solving strategies is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCS)
The basic task is for the subject to sort cards, however they are not instructed as to what the rules are for sorting – they must extract the rules based on experimenter feedback regarding whether their sorting is correct or not

A current model for brain areas involved in explicit problem-solving: on the outer surface of each hemisphere, peak activity during problem-solving appears in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
During task conflict or errors, we find high activity in the forward anterior part of cingulate cortex (ACC)

Effective problem solving likely entails a mixture of explicit & implicit processes along w/ a high degree of mental flexibility

well defined problems
Much studied in AI

Requires search

Domain general heuristics for solving problems

what about if the search is too large
It is not possible to enumerate the entire search space for many well-defined problems

we must use heuristics
not guaranteed to work but easy to implement.

trial and error
Edward L. Thorndike found that many animals search by trial & error (aka random search)

Found that cats in a “puzzle box” initially behaved impulsively & apparently random

After many trials in puzzle box, solution time decreases

hill climbing
Find some measure of the distance between your present state & the end state

Might lead to suboptimal solutions: local maximum

means-end analysis
Set up a goal

Look for a difference between current state & goal or subgoal state

Find an operator to reduce this difference. One operator is the setting of a new subgoal

Apply operator

Repeat until final goal is achieved

Examples: painting your house (goal) apply paint (subgoal), need paint & brush (subgoal)

what about ill-defined problems?
No real mechanisms for dealing w/ these

According to Gestalt psychologists, the problem may be solved suddenly by “seeing” the problem differently

Often requires developing a suitable representation

Why people get stuck solving problems?
Functional Fixedness – subjects who utilize an object for a particular function will have more trouble in a problem-solving situation that requires a new & dissimilar function for the object

Executive Control
Executive regions become involved in a very wide range of conditions that require flexible decision-making. In contrast, as we will see, unconscious memory traces & skills do not recruit these executive regions. Instead, they are thought encoded in widespread traces in the temporal cortex & elsewhere in the brain

executive control model therefore shows general-purpose functions, like:
1.Sustained goal pursuit & deciding on subgoals

2.Maintaining attentional focus on the task

3.Inhibitory control over distracting thoughts & emotions

4.Metacognitive monitoring of the quality of required sensory, motor, language & immediate memory functions

Is the foremost tool of human thought & culture

It’s also one of the major landmarks of child development, w/ no close parallel in other species

Before our 4th birthday, we have solved the problems of understanding our first phonology, our first basic lexicon & syntax. New words are acquired at a very fast pace during those years. While our understanding of syntax is still not fully settled, children acquire it w/ little visible difficulty.

language is not unitary
there are many levels of analysis & production. Each level is highly complex, but is processed by skilled speakers largely unconsciously & rapidly – within seconds

To illustrate the scientific questions posed by language, it is interesting to ask someone to repeat a sentence they have just heard. You may be surprised:
people can rarely remember a sentence verbatim after only a few secs. It’s not that we have poor memories, but rather that we tend to retain the meaning, not the words of what we hear. Most people can therefore give us a paraphrase of what they hear – a different sentence w/ a similar meaning – but not the original sentence. As soon as speech is understood, we tend to forget its “outer form”.

Acoustical analysis
turning sounds into linguistic elements such as phonemes; phoneme coding & serializing, to construct syllables & morphemes (meaningful units)

Lexical identification
assigning words to the input, chosen from a vocab of tens of thousands of words

Syntactic analysis
identifying nouns, verbs, & other grammatical categories & constructing a syntactical frame

building the semantic network of the lexical & syntactic structure

sounds of spoken language
It is amazing how many intricate sounds the human vocal tract can produce using air from the lungs & the articulators in the nose & mouth

The vocal tract is basically a tube, w/ 2 flexible flaps just above the lungs & its diaphragm muscles, which together create air pressure when we breathe out.

The sounds of a language are called phonemes, consisting basically of consonants & vowels.

Biological Aspects of Language
Virtually all humans learn to speak in the first several years of life, & no other species does. There are interesting exceptions, like the chimps & gorillas , who are able to acquire Sign Language by observational learning & training early in life.

language production
tends to be lateralized to the dominant hemisphere (usually on the left side), though early brain damage can cause a shift to the non-dominant side. The gene apparently needs to be expressed accurately for human speech to develop, although that gene is widely found thru out vertebrate species.

Repeating a sentence requires specific brain regions, assuming that the brain has developed normally. The best-known examples are Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas but speech & language recruit much wider cortical & subcortical activity

Broca’s area also contains mirror neurons which are specialized for imitating the actions of others
Language Cortex has only become specialized for speech within hominid evolution.

brocas area is..
for speech production

where is brocas area
it is immediately adjacent to the mouth & vocal tract regions of the motor cortex.

why is it called brocas area
When Broca discovered patients w/ damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus which is now called Broca’s area, a great debate broke out among neurologists who found it hard to find patients w/ exactly the same damage & the same symptoms.

damage to brocas area
It is still true that damage to Broca’s area will tend to impair speech output, while damage to Wernicke’s area & neighboring regions tends to degrade speech perception & comprehension.

Broca’s aphasics struggle to speak more than 1 word at a time but shows signs of enormous effort: thus patients w/ Broca’s aphasia is characterized as “nonfluent” aphasia.

weinickes area
for speech perception and comprehension

Wernicke’s area abuts the auditory cortex in the Sylvian fissure & superior temporal gyrus.
Wernicke’s aphasics have different types of symptoms. Individuals w/ Wernicke’s aphasia speak extremely fluently but w/ no informative purpose. It is known as fluent aphasia.

language is
Foremost tool of human thought & culture

1 of the major landmarks of child development w/ no close parallel in other species

syntax is..
Syntax is often said to be the most distinctive aspect in language

Syntax gives us a framework for planning the elements of a sentence in much the way we use goals & subgoals to plan a series of actions, like navigating from 1 place to another, or making moves in a chess game

Syntax can therefore be used as a cognitive planning tool, but it appears to be something human beings are adapted for. For skilled speakers, the planning of speech is of course mostly implicit.

A sentence has a “surface” structure which is the word order & structure that you see when you hear or read it
The tree diagram reveals the deep structure of the sentence, showing its grammatical parts & relationships

what brain areas are involved in decoding syntax?
it is difficult to tease apart brain activity that is specific to syntax decoding & not related to phonological & semantic processes or working memory functions. Results of a recent neuroimaging study show different brain areas in the frontal & temporal lobes that are involved in differing aspects of syntactic processing

unified representations of language
Wundt suggested that language production begins w/ a Gesamtvorstellung, a unified mental representation of a sentence one was about to utter

This unified representation would need many different levels of description: semantic, syntactic, phonemic, perhaps vocal, pragmatic (involving one’s goals) & more.

summary of language
Language is a distinctive human capacity, 1 that makes it possible to transmit culture across time & space

Left inferior frontal gyrus (L-IFG) is a more appropriate term for Broca’s area

Posterior Auditory & Speech regions of the parietal & temporal cortex are more accurate than the term “Wernicke’s Area”

Frontal lobes & executive control
the concept of executive functions or executive control is intimately linked to the function of the frontal lobes.

Prefrontal cortex is located in front of the primary motor cortex, sometimes called the motor strip.
The frontal lobes used to be known as “the silent lobes” bc they are not easily linked to any single, easily defined function.

However new imaging techniques are suggesting more specialized regions within the prefrontal cortex for functions like executive control, conflict monitoring, emotion & working memory.

Patient EW [1 of 3]
Caramazza & co-workers have performed careful studies of a patient known as EW, who shows a deficit in naming animals. By presenting pics with known frequency & familiarity ratings EW’s knowledge of pictured categories could be tested in a controlled way. She had greater difficulty naming animals compared to other categories.

Patient EW [2 of 3]
EW also had difficulty simply recognizing animal pics, but not other categories. Her deficit was not restricted to pics, but also extended to spoken animal names. Yet the patient performed in the normal range on complex visual picture processing, such as face recognition & pic matching

Patient EW [3 of 3]
Finally, EW had trouble w/ major attributes of animals, but not attributes of other objects. Given questions like “does a whale fly” & does a cow have a mane? She was incorrect about a third of the time. She performed better on other categories. While the idea of specific deficits is compelling, there are alternative interpretations of evidence

One of the ways that clinicians diagnose autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in children is to engage them in a false belief “game” much like the Hana & Benny story, often using puppets or dolls to make the game more accessible. Children are asked to mentalize about the beliefs of the characters in the story. Those children who cannot read the character’s minds may be further assessed for autism. Deficits in theory of mind skills have long been diagnostic of ASDs

Researchers have turned to studying neural processes in individuals w/ autism to see where deficits lie. Dapretto obtained evidence suggesting that functional deficits in the frontal mirror neuron system are present in children w/ autism.
Their participants were high functioning children w/ ASD & matched typically developing children who were asked to imitate pictured facial expressions of anger, happiness, fear, sadness or neutrality.

Typically developing children showed strong bilateral activation of the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal lobe that we have described as the frontal portion of the mirror neuron system
Children w/ autism were able to perform the facial imitation task; activation in their fusiform gyri indicate that they perceived the pictured faces. The researchers found that activation in the mirror neuron area correlated negatively w/ the severity of the children’s autistic symptoms, as assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.

Parts of the Phonological Loop
Inner Ear

Inner Voice

Limited by Recording Length

Evidence for Loop / Phonological similarity effect:
BBGTCD is harder to memorize than FKYWMR

Word length effect: easier to remember short words than long words

Pay, wit, bar,hop,sum v. helicopter, university, tv, alligator, opportunity

Subvocal articulation, auditory noise, interferes w/ verbal memory

Humans spend about 6 years dreaming
Dreams are generated in the forebrain

Most common emotion experienced during dreaming is anxiety
The US ranks the highest amongst industrialized nations for aggression in dreams w/ 50% of US males reporting aggression in dreams, compared to 32% for Dutch men

Men generally have more aggressive feelings in their dreams than women, & children’s dreams do not have very much aggression until they reach teen age
This parallel much of the current research on gender & gender role comparisons in aggressive behavior

This supports the view that there is a continuity between our conscious & unconscious styles & personalities
In men’s dreams 70% of the characters are other men, while a female’s dreams contain an equal # of men & women

Sexual dreams show up about 10% of time time & are more prevalent in young to mid-teens
Approximately 70% of women have recurring dreams & 65% of men

The most common themes are: situations relating to school, being chased, sexual experiences, falling, arriving too late, a person now alive beind dead, flying, failing an exam, or a car accident
12% of people dream only in black & white

In general, more introverted, psychologically oriented people naturally remember their dreams & practical, concrete thinkers don’t

Hampton Court maze
When WIllard Small decided to study the maze learning of rats, he began by building a model of the hedge maze that exists at Hampton Court from a diagram he found in the Encyclopedia Britannica. With a little encouragement from a food reward at the goal, rats were soon exploring his model and proved adept at learning it. So began one of the most productive experimental paradigms for investigating cognition ever devised

response learning
Early in the study of animal maze-learning two different explanations for what an animal actually learned were proposed. One explanation is that if the way through the maze is to turn left then right than left again, this is what the animal learns. Since the animal learns a sequence of responses, this is called response learning. For response learning, an animal only needs an egocentric representation of the world in which each turn is encoded in relation to the direction it is going.

mental maps and mazes
Edward Tolman theorized that animals learned a mental map of the maze and its surrounding that it followed on subsequent trips through the maze. This is called place. For place coding, an animal needs an allocentric representation of the world in which the locations of various places in the world are encoded in relation to each other rather than any particular position of the animal

the hippocampus is located in….
the MTL or the medial temporal lobe of the brain

hippocampus and memory
Some researchers regard the hippocampus as part of a larger medial temporal lobe memory system responsible for general declarative memory (memories that can be explicitly verbalized—these would include, for example, memory for facts in addition to episodic memory)

Memory consolidation
It is a distinct process that serves to maintain, strengthen and modify memories that are already stored in the long-term memory. Once memories undergo the process of consolidation and become part of long-term memory, they are thought of as stable.

what does sleep do
“sleep reinforces memory traces by refreshing synaptic efficacy. Refreshment is needed due to a constant decay of memory traces over time. It is further assumed that maintenance of synaptic efficacy at `dedicated values’ is achieved by a type of reactivation of the synapses in memory encoding neuronal circuits.”

REM [rapid eye movement] and memory
REM sleep has been thought of to be an important concept in the overnight learning in humans by establishing information in the hippocampal and cortical regions of the brain. REM sleep elicits an increase in neuronal activity following an enriched or novel waking experience, thus increasing neuronal plasticity and therefore playing an essential role in the consolidation of memories

sleep deprivation and memory
studies on sleep deprivation have shown that animals and humans who are denied REM sleep do not show deficits in task learning. It has been proposed that since the brain is in a non-memory encoding state during sleep, consolidation would be unlikely to occur

frontal lobe
The frontal lobes are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms. The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior.

left frontal lobe versus right frontal lobe
The left frontal lobe is involved in controlling language related movement, whereas the right frontal lobe plays a role in non-verbal abilities.

Complex chains of motor movement also seem to be controlled by the frontal lobes
Patients with frontal lobe damage exhibit little spontaneous facial expression, which points to the role of the frontal lobes in facial expression. Broca’s Aphasia, or difficulty in speaking, has been associated with frontal damage by Brown

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