Episodic memories are often autobiographical in nature, in that we can travel mentally back in time to relive the experience.
Episodic memories may turn into semantic memories over time.
May refer to an event that we experienced in Paris, Ottawa or in high school.
We often have an autobiographical source memory about a specific time, place, and set of circumstances when our episodic memory was acquired.
2.Are organized around a specific time period
3.Are remembered consciously, in such as way that we seem to be able to re-experience them
4.Are susceptible to forgetting
5.Are context-dependent, w/ respect to time, space, relationships w/ others, & other circumstances
Semantic memories are independent of the spatial & temporal context in which they were acquired.
May refer to our knowledge of Paris as the capital of France, or Ottawa as the capital of Canada, or the knowledge that we attended a particular high school.
2.Are not organized around a specific time period
3.Give a “feeling of knowing” rather than a fully conscious recollection of the original event
4.Are less susceptible to forgetting than specific episodes
5.Are relatively independent of context
He can discuss the immediate present, using his general knowledge of the world. He is conscious, has normal voluntary control over his actions, & appears to be emotionally well adjusted. It is only when his episodic memory is tested that he reveals that he simply cannot remember the past, or learn new memories for the future.
For retrieval to be effective, info at retrieval must overlap w/ the info that was learned or encoded. The person must have the goal of retrieving memories & paying attention to cues, as well as mentally searching for the desired memory. Automatic Retrieval of a memory often occurs once the cue is found. Strategic or purposeful retrieval, however, is attention demanding & is impaired by any effortful competing task.
Explicit Thinking involves greater executive control, higher mental workload, more frequent conscious access, & wider recruitment of cortical regions in pursuit of explicit goals
Brain areas activated during solving of the Towers of Hanoi include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Brain areas involved in adapting to new rules – or task switching – overlap w/ areas active for other executive tasks in frontal & parietal lobes
Domain general heuristics for solving problems
Found that cats in a “puzzle box” initially behaved impulsively & apparently random
After many trials in puzzle box, solution time decreases
Might lead to suboptimal solutions: local maximum
Look for a difference between current state & goal or subgoal state
Find an operator to reduce this difference. One operator is the setting of a new subgoal
Repeat until final goal is achieved
Examples: painting your house (goal) apply paint (subgoal), need paint & brush (subgoal)
According to Gestalt psychologists, the problem may be solved suddenly by “seeing” the problem differently
Often requires developing a suitable representation
2.Maintaining attentional focus on the task
3.Inhibitory control over distracting thoughts & emotions
4.Metacognitive monitoring of the quality of required sensory, motor, language & immediate memory functions
It’s also one of the major landmarks of child development, w/ no close parallel in other species
Before our 4th birthday, we have solved the problems of understanding our first phonology, our first basic lexicon & syntax. New words are acquired at a very fast pace during those years. While our understanding of syntax is still not fully settled, children acquire it w/ little visible difficulty.
The vocal tract is basically a tube, w/ 2 flexible flaps just above the lungs & its diaphragm muscles, which together create air pressure when we breathe out.
The sounds of a language are called phonemes, consisting basically of consonants & vowels.
Broca’s aphasics struggle to speak more than 1 word at a time but shows signs of enormous effort: thus patients w/ Broca’s aphasia is characterized as “nonfluent” aphasia.
1 of the major landmarks of child development w/ no close parallel in other species
Syntax gives us a framework for planning the elements of a sentence in much the way we use goals & subgoals to plan a series of actions, like navigating from 1 place to another, or making moves in a chess game
Syntax can therefore be used as a cognitive planning tool, but it appears to be something human beings are adapted for. For skilled speakers, the planning of speech is of course mostly implicit.
This unified representation would need many different levels of description: semantic, syntactic, phonemic, perhaps vocal, pragmatic (involving one’s goals) & more.
Left inferior frontal gyrus (L-IFG) is a more appropriate term for Broca’s area
Posterior Auditory & Speech regions of the parietal & temporal cortex are more accurate than the term “Wernicke’s Area”
Limited by Recording Length
Word length effect: easier to remember short words than long words
Pay, wit, bar,hop,sum v. helicopter, university, tv, alligator, opportunity
Subvocal articulation, auditory noise, interferes w/ verbal memory