Clinical Pharmacology made incredibly easy:chapters 1-3

Metabolism
Process by which the body changes a drug from it’s dosage form to a more water-soluble form that can be excreted.

Factors in drug absorption
Route of administration, patient history, First-pass effect, increased blood flow to absorption site, pain and stress, high fat meals, dosage form, drug-drug or food-drug interaction can increase or decrease drug absorption

Drug excretion
The elimination of drugs from the body.

Drug distribution
The process by which the drug is delivered from the systemic circulation to body tissues and fluids.

Factors of drug distribution
blood flow, solubility (lipid-soluble=crosses through cell membranes water-soluble=can’t cross through cell membranes), protein binding

Potential drug interactions
additive effects, potentiation, antagonistic effects, decreased or increased absorption, metabolism, or excretion

Parenteral
A dosage form intended for administration as an injection or infusion.

Subcutaneous injection
Small amounts of a drug are injected beneath the dermis into the subcutaneous tissue.

Pharmacological drug class
Drugs grouped by similar characteristics (ex:Beta adrenergic blockers)

Therapeutic drug class
Drugs grouped by their therapeutic use (ex:antihypertensives)

Pharmacokinetics
The process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted

Active transport
Requires cellular energy to move the drug from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Used to absorb electrolytes such as sodium or potassium or drugs such as levodopa

Passive transport
Requires no cellular energy to move the drug because diffusion allows the drug to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

Pharmacotherapeutics
Tells you the therapeutic use of a drug (to prevent or treat diseases)

Pharmacodynamics
The biochemical and physical effects of drugs and mechanism of drug actions.

What is the therapeutic use of Atropine?
GI disorders, reduce oral, gastric, and respiratory secretions, prevent a drop in heart rate from anesthesia, symptomatic sinus bradycardia, arrhythmias resulting from use of anesthetics, choline esters, or succinylcholine, and to paralyze the ciliary muscles of the eye, alter the shape of the eye lens, or dilate pupils.

What are beta adrenergic blockers?
They prevent stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting the action of catecholamines at beta adrenergic receptors.

What is the typical therapeutic use of beta adrenergic blockers?
Beta-adrenergic blockers can be prescribed after a heart attack or used to treat angina, heart failure, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, supraventricular arrhythmias.

Prodrugs
A drug that is inactive when taken but becomes active when metabolized.

What are anticholinergic drugs called?
Cholinergic blocking drugs

Therapeutic use for anticholinergic drugs
GI disorders and complications, relax the bladder and treat urinary incontinence, biliary colic, before diagnostic procedures to relax the GI muscle

Pharmacodynamics of cholinergic agonists
Cholinergic agonists work by mimicking the action of acetylcholine on the neurons in target organs, they stimulate the muscle and produce salivation, bradycardia, dilation of blood vessels, constriction of the bronchioles, increased activity of the GI tract, increased tone and contraction of the bladder muscles, and constriction of the pupils.

Pharmacotherapeutics of cholinergic agonists
weak bladder, GI disorders, reduce eye pressure, salivary gland hypofunction

Therapeutic use for Ergotamine
Preventing or treating an acute migraine headache with or without aura.

Pharmacodynamics of Alpha adrenergic drugs
Also called sympatholytic drugs are used to disrupt sympathetic nervous system functions. They interrupt the actions of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine at alpha receptors.

Pharmacotherapeutics of alpha adrenergic drugs
benign prostatic hypertrophy, hypertension, peripheral vascular disorders, pheochromocytoma

Pharmacodynamics of Bethanecol
is a cholinergic agonist and acts principally by producing the effects of stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. It increases the tone of the detrusor urinae muscle, usually producing a contraction sufficiently strong to initiate micturition and empty the bladder. It stimulates gastric motility, increases gastric tone and often restores impaired rythmic peristalsis.

Chemical name for Valium
Diazepam Hydrochloride

Therapeutic use for Valium
is used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawl symptoms, or muscle spasms. Also used in combination with other medications to treat seizures.

Pharmacodynamics of Neostigmine
is an anticholinesterase agent, and inhibits the hydrolysis of acetylcholine by competing with acetylcholine for binding to acetylcholinesterase at sites of cholinergic transmission. By reducing the breakdown of acetylcholine, neuromuscular transmission is facilitated. also has direct postsynaptic cholinomimetic effects which can be managed clinically by the co-administration of atropine or glycopyrrolate

Pharmacotherapeutic use of Neostigmine
affects chemicals in the body that are involved in the communication between nerve impulses and muscle movement.
is used to treat the symptoms of myasthenia gravis.

Adverse reactions to cholinergic agonists
slow heart beat, possibly leading to cardiac arrest.
muscle weakness, muscle cramps, and muscle pain,
convulsions,
weak breathing, inability to breath,
increased stomach acid and saliva, increased sweating,
nausea and vomiting,
dizziness, drowsiness, and headache

Pharmacotherapeutic use for Levodopa
is a medication used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is associated with low levels of a chemical called dopamine (doe PA meen) in the brain. Levodopa is turned into dopamine in the body and therefore increases levels of this chemical. is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson’s disease. is also used to treat these same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), and others.

Therapeutic use for Phenobarbital
is indicated for use as a sedative or anticonvulsant

Therapeutic use for Carbamazepine
is a prescription medicine used to treat certain types of seizures (partial, tonic-clonic, mixed)
certain types of nerve pain (trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia) is not a regular pain medicine and should not be used for aches or pains.

What are Triptans used for?
are a group (class) of drugs that are used to ease the symptoms of a migraine attack or cluster headache.

What drugs increase the effects of cholinergic blockers?
Disopyramide, amantadine, buclizine, cyclizine, meclizine, diphenhydramine, haloperidol, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, cyclobenzaprine, orphenadrine, and tricyclic and tetracyclic antdepressants

What is a common anticonvulsant?
Phenytoin

What is empiric therapy?
is therapy based on experience[1] and, more specifically, therapy begun on the basis of a clinical educated guess in the absence of complete or perfect information. Thus it is applied before the confirmation of a definitive diagnosis or in the absence of complete understanding of mechanism, whether the biological mechanism of pathogenesis or the therapeutic mechanism of action

What is osmosis?
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.

Anticonvulsants are also known as?
(also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs)

Therapeutic use for anticonvulsants
used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain

What are Benzodiazepines used for?
Alcohol withdrawl, anxiety, insomnia, muscle relaxant, panic disorders, conscious sedation, and seizures

Pharmacotherapeutic use for Succinylcholine
Relaxing muscles during surgery or when using a breathing machine (ventilator). It is also used to induce anesthesia or when a tube must be inserted in the windpipe. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

is a depolarizing muscle relaxant. It works by keeping muscles from contracting, which causes paralysis of the muscles in the face and those used to breathe and move.

Pharmacotherapeutic use for Baclofen
is used to treat muscle spasms caused by certain conditions (such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury/disease). It works by helping to relax the muscles.

What are nondepolarizing drugs?
also called competitive or stabilizing drugs, are derived from curare alkaloids and synthetically similar compounds

What can you use a muscle skeletal relaxant for?
These drugs are used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms due to spastic conditions and can be used to relieve musculoskeletal pain and spasms.

Pharmacotherapeutic use for Dantrolene
is indicated in controlling the manifestations of clinical spasticity resulting from upper motor neuron disorders (e.g., spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis) is also indicated preoperatively to prevent or attenuate the development of signs of malignant hyperthermia in known, or strongly suspect, malignant hyperthermia susceptible patients who require anesthesia and/or surgery.

What are COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase) inhibitors?
are used as adjuncts to Levodopa-carvidopa therapy in managing patients with Parkinson’s disease

What are catecholamines?
Because of their common basic chemical structure they all share certain properties-they stimulate the nervous system, constrict peripheral blood vessels, increase heart rate, and dilate the bronchi.

Pharmacology The study of drugs Pharmacodynamics The action of drugs WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Pharmacokinetics Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion Pharmacotherapeutic’s The use of drugs and …

Cholinergic agonists effects- stimulates parasympathetic nervous system resulting in: salivation; bradycardia; dilation of blood vessels; constriction of pulmonary bronchioles; increased activity of the G.I. tract; increased tone and contraction of the muscles of the bladder; constrictions of the pupils adverse …

First-Pass Effect Drug absorbed from GI tract and carried to the liver through portal circulation. Some drugs extensively metablized by liver. Only part of drug reaches systemic circulation for distribution theses types of drugs should not be administered PO (lidocaine/some …

Two divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral Nervous System (outside of brain and spinal cord) Two divisions of the Peripheral NS Efferent Division (consists of the neurons that carry signals AWAY from the …

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