Respiration of Eubacteria is through two ways, fermentation and respiration using oxygen. Other Eubacteria can use both fermentation and oxygen for their respiration. Eubacteria that uses oxygen in their respiration pathway are called aerobic Eubacteria while those that do not use oxygen are referred to as anaerobic Eubacteria. Anaerobic Eubacteria are further classified into facultative (Those that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen), Eubacteria that have two respiratory pathways, one that uses oxygen and the other that does not and the group that cannot stand the presence of oxygen (the obligate anaerobes)
Gram staining; This is another feature that utilizes the peptidoglycan layer characteristics in the bacterial cell wall to classify the Eubacteria. They are therefore classified as Gram positive or Gram negative. Gram negative bacteria are more diverse than gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria means that the bacteria has the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall cable of absorbing the gram stain while gram negative indicates that the peptidoglycan layer is sandwiched between the inner cell membrane and the outer cell membrane of the bacteria, therefore inability to absorb any gram stain.
Myxobacteria, gliding bacteria, Ricketsias, cyanobacteria, chlamydias and Spirochetes among others are examples of gram negative Eubacteria, and Actinomycutes, Clostrids and Mycoplasma among others are examples of gram positive Eubacteria. There is a unique Eubacteria called the mycoplasma which is the smallest group. This group is functionally gram negative due to their lack of cell wall which means no peptidoglycan and gram positive due to the similarities they have to the other gram positive group of Eubacteria.
Mycoplasma reproduce independently. Other facts; Important classification combining all the characteristics of Eubacteria and other modes of classification for example the gram negative Eubacteria lacking DAP in their cell envelopes, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca, belonging to Eubacteria Gemmatimonadetes. The Aquificae with examples of thermocrinis, persephonella and others that hyperthermophilic as well as chemotrophic Eubacteria. They are several classes.
another class is the Thermotogae with examples of bacteria as geotoga andmarinitoga among others. The third group of Eubacteria is the Thermodesulfobacteria, which have Thermodesulfobacterium and Thermodesulfatator as the examples of the group. The fourth group Chrysiogenetes, this class is regarded as the chemolithoautotrophic which is only one bacterium. Another group is Nitrospira with examples of nitospira and Thermodesulfovibrio among others and are thermophilic sulphate reducers,nitrite oxidizers and acidophilic iron oxidizers.
Other groups are; the spiral mahaped spirochetes, Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-thermus, Acidophilic bacteria that is comon in soil, the Dictyoglomi, Verrucomicrobia that have a variety of host ranging from aguatic, terrestial and eukaryotic hosts, the group Fusobacteria (in most cases anaerobic heterotrophs), gram positive firmicutes ,cyanobacteria that uses oxygen for respiration, Deferribacteres the aquatic and anaerobic bacteria, chloroflexi and the rest of the classes. Bacterial Phylogeny; This area has little concordance. A prokaryote systematics that was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s led to the formation of the tree, ‘SSUrRNA’.
This system had life divided three times based on the branches of eukaryotes, the Archaea bacteria, and the Eubateria which developed several names like the Eucarya, Archaea and lastly the bacteria. The archaea were found to have several characters that were eukariotic related rather than prokaryotic related especially the transcription of genes. Another idea that lead to the establishment of archaea being different from Eubacteria is the extremophile nature of the cultured archaeabacteria considering the phylogenetic relations.
It was found though that the metabolic genes of archaea bacteria resemble those of the Eubacteria, while the DNA processing genes resemble those of the eukarya. This is analyzed with the assumption that not all parts of a genome evolve at the same rate although it is confusing. The combination of archaea is inexplicable with the features shared with one domain representing plesiomorphies lost in the one domain involved in the sharing while features shared in another domain can be apomorphies of a bigger group.
Understanding this principle requires establishment of related domains like in a phylogenetic tree for example the rRNA tree. The phylogenetic tree that relates archaea, Eubacteria and eukarya domains was based on selecting the genes that had duplicated before the last Universal Common ancestor. The main criteria that bacterial systematic researchers use in phylogeny the rRNA trees revealing the three domains Eubacteria, eukarya and archaea as the common norm. Other suggestions were made that a common ancestor for all the three domains had not yet been well established.
Lateral gene transfer was then conducted with genetic components as the interchangeable modular units. a threshold was then passed separately in each of the three domains and the genetic components became integrated so that lateral gene transfer could not occur to cause blurring of genealogical lines. Below is a brief description of some specific Eubacteria Species Staphylococcus aureus, a member of the Staphylococcus genera. Coccus means rounded. the prefix staphy- means cells that are clustered together to form a grapelike bunch. It is a parasitic bacteria.
It is commonly found in the upper gastrointestinal tract of humans, including the nostrils of healthy individuals it is a component of the normal body flora. sometimes, however, it can cause some superficial diseases like boils, impetigo, infection of wounds and burns. Staphylococcus epidermidis is another rounded bacteria that is also grapelike in shape because of the clumping together of the cells. It is also present in the skin of normal individuals. It is found in the mouth, skin and lower part of the male urethra it associates in a symbiotic relationship with its host.
it does not normally cause diseases as it is part of the normal body flora. however, in immune suppressed individuals it can cause an aggravation of an underlying pathological condition. Also, in individuals that have undergone surgery, it can cause endocarditis. Leptospiria interrogans is a member of the Leptospiria family. it is an aerobic bacteria. about 6 microns long. As a Spirochaete, it moves by the means of axial filaments they reproduce through the asexual means, just like other sporochaetes.
it causes a disease known as leptospirosis. In Humans, a severe form of this disease is known as Weli’s disease. Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete. This means that it is shaped like a cork-screw. it is a parasitic and anaerobic bacteria. It causes the sexually transmitted disease, Syphilis. It is spiral in shape about 5 to 15 microns. it is highly motile. other species from the family Treponema are indistingulshable from T. pallidum, except for the disease they cause. Treponema pertenue causes topical skin disease and yaws.
they reproduce through the asexual means, just like other sporochaetes. it causes a disase known as leptospirosis. in Humans, a severe form of this disease is known as Weli’s disease. Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete. meaning that it is shaped like a cork-screw. it is a parasitic and anaerobic bacteria. the sexually transmitted disease, Syphilis. it is spiral in shape about 5 to 15 microns. it is highly motile. Other species from the family Treponema are indistingulshable from T. pallidum, except for the disease they cause.
Treponema pertenue causes topical skin disease and yaws. Borelia vincenti is a member of the Borelia genus. It is about 12 microns in length. As the name implies, it is shaped like a spiral filament. it is pathogenic and causes Trench mouth disease.
Taxonomy of Eubacteria(2008). Accessed from http://comenius. susqu. edu/bi/202/EUBACTERIA/TAXONOMY. htm Eubacteria:Microbiology (2008). www. infochembio. ethz. ch/links/en/mikrobio_eubakterien. html The Obligate Anaerobes. (2008). www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/423840/obligate-anaerobe