Chapter one criminal justice

crime
conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse

individual rights
the rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution

social disorganization
a condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladroitness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus

1850-1880
crime epidemic spurred by immigration and civil war

1920-1933
prohibition spurred the growth of organized crime

1960-1970
civil rights movement emphasized equality (racial minorities, women, people with physical and mental challenges)

1970s
murder, rape, and assault increased

1980s
drugs led to increased crime

1992
police officers seen as an example of abuse of power

September 11, 2001
international offense

Bernard Madoff
Stole $50 billion(white collar crime); 150 years in prison

Chelsea’s law
a bill intended to increase prison sentences and extend parole terms for offenders of sex crimes against minors

individual rights advocate
one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice

social order
the condition of a society characterized by social integration, consensus, smooth functioning, and lack of interpersonal and institutional conflict

justice
the principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity; “truth in action”

civil justice
concerns itself with fairness in relationships between citizens, government agencies, and businesses…and equality of treatment

criminal justice
concerns violation of the criminal law

administration of justice
performance of detection, apprehension, detection, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders

consensus model
“everyone is happy” component parts of the criminal justice system strives toward a common goal and that the movement of cases and people through the system is smooth due to cooperation between the various components of the system

conflict model
says: the interests of criminal justice agencies tend to make actors within the system self-serving

Police:
enforce the law, investigates crimes, apprehends offenders, reduces and prevents crimes, maintains public order, ensures community safety, provides emergency and related community services, protects the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals

Correctional Agencies:
carries out sentences imposed by the courts, provides safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders, protects the community, rehabilitates, reforms, and reintegrates convicted offenders back into the community, respects the legal and human rights of the convicted

Criminal courts:
conducts fair and impartial trials, decides criminal cases, ensures due process, determines guilt or innocence, imposes sentences on the guilty, upholds the law, requires fairness throughout the justice process, protects the rights and freedoms of anyone facing processing by the justice system, provides a check on the exercise of power by other justice system agencies

What percentage of people that are arrested are actually convicted?
half

How many of those are sentenced to a year or more in prison?
a quarter

The process of the justice system:
1) investigation 2)warrant 3)arrest 4)booking 5)first appearance 6)preliminary hearing 7)information or indictment 8)arraignment 9)adjudication 10)sentencing 11)corrections 12)reentry

Miranda Rights: (Miranda v. Arizona)
1)You have the right to remain silent 2)Anything you say can and will be used against you in court 3)You have the right to talk to a lawyer 4)If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you 5)If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time 6)Do you wish to talk or not? 7)Do you want a lawyer?

Within how many hours must suspects be brought before a magistrate for an initial appearance?
48 hourse

Preliminary hearing
to establish whether sufficient evidence exists against a person to continue the justice process

probable cause
the belief that 1) a crime has been committed and 2) the defendant committed it

indictment
returned by grand jury before prosecution can be processed

arraignment
the first appearance of the defendant before the court that has the authority to conduct a trial

Sixth amendment
every criminal defendant has a right to a trial by jury

procedural law
specifies the type of evidence that may be submitted, the credentials of those allowed to represent the state or the defendant, and what the jury is allowed to hear

precedent
refers to understandings built up through common usage and also to decisions rendered by courts in previous cases

bench trial
trials or less serious offences to occur before a judge if defendants waive their right to trial by jury

deadlocked
when the jury is unable to decide, judge declares a mistrial

Consecutive sentance
served seperately

concurrent sentance
served together

Options of punishment:
prison, community service, fines

Gideon v. Wainwright
state provides lawyers for defendants who are unable to pay for them

crime-control model
1) need to enforce the law and to maintain public order 2) need to protect individuals from injustice

due process model
intended to ensure that innocent people are not convicted of crimes

evidence-based policing
refers to crime-fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and based on social science

criminology
the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders

multiculturalism
describes a society that is home to a multitude of different cultures

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