chapter 8 – mood disorders

depression and mania
two key emotions in mood disorders

depression
feeling low, down, or depressed with reduced energy, self-worth, guilt, and hoplessness
often used to describe general sadness or unhappiness

mania
an extreme high or state of euphoria with inflated self-esteem and reduced need for sleep
DSM-5 also includes persistent and extreme irritation

clinical depression
can bring severe and long-lasting psychological distress that may impact functioning and intensify over time

five main areas of functioning for unipolar depression
emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical symptoms

emotional symptoms for unipolar depression
for unipolar depression
subjective feelings of sadness, hoplessness, helplessness
experiencing little pleasure

motivational symptoms for unipolar depression
for unipolar depression
lacking drive, initiative, spontaneity
loss of desire or interest

behavioral symptoms for unipolar depression
for unipolar depression
less active, less productive; isolative
possible change in motor speed, eating habits, and sleeping

cognitive symptoms for unipolar depression
for unipolar depression
negative views of oneself, the world and/or the future
reduced cognitive abilities

physical sympotms
for unipolar symptoms
headaches, dizzy spells, general pain

major depressive disorder
marked by five or more symptoms of major depression lasting two or more weeks
significant distress and/or functional impairment
in extreme cases psychotic symptoms are present (hallucinations and delusions)
no history of mania

dysthymic disorder
one form of a persistent depressive disorder
symptoms are “mild but chronic”
depression is longer lasting, but less disabling
consistent symptoms for at least two years

causes of unipolar depression
stress may be a trigger
tend to experience a greater number of stressful life events during the month prior to the onset of their symptoms
the current explanations point to factors in the domains of biological, psychological, and social

biological view
causes of unipolar depression
genetic factors implicate the predisposition
twin studies demonstrate strong genetic component
adoption studies suggest genetic factor
biochemical factors
key neurotransmitters: serotonin and norepinephrine
endocrin system/hormone release
cortisol, melatonin

psychological view
causes of unipolar depression
three main models
psychodynamic model
behavioral model
cognitive views

cognitive view
causes of unipolar depression
two main theories
negative thinking
learned helplessness

negative thinking
Beck theorizes four interrelated cognitive components combine to produce unipolar depression
maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad, errors in thinking, automatic thoughts

maladaptive attitudes
self-defeating attitudes are learned during childhood
which can trigger negative thinking later in life in response to upsetting situations

cognitive triad
negative thinking typically takes three forms
individuals repeatedly interpret: their experiences, themselves, and their futures in negative ways leading to depression

thinking errors
arbitrary inferences (i.e. jumping to conclusions)
minimization of the positive and magnification of the negative

negative automatic thoughts
a steady train of automatic, unpleasant thoughts
just “pop” into one’s head

strengths of Beck’s negative thinking
many studies have produced evidence in support of this explanation
high correlation between level of depression and the number of maladaptive attitudes
both the cognitive triad and thinking errors are seen in people with depression
automatic thoughts have been linked to depression

limitations to Beck’s negative thinking
research fails to show that such cognitive patterns are the cause and core of unipolar depression

learned helplessness
causes of unipolar depression
this theory asserts that people become depressed when they think that
they no longer have control over reinforcements (rewards and punishments) in their lives
they themselves are responsible for this helpless state
based on Seligmna’s work with laboratory dogs

strengths of learned helplessness
hundreds of studies have supported the relationship between styles of attribution, helplessness, and depression

limitations of learned helplessness
laboratory helplessness does not parallel depression in every way
much of the research relies on animal subjects
the attributional component of the theory raises particularly difficult questions in terms of animal models of depression

sociocultural view on causes of unipolar depression
propose that unipolar depression is greatly influenced by the social context that surrounds people
supported by the findings that depression is often triggered by outside stressors
two kinds of views: family-social perspective and multicultural perspective

multicultural perspecitve
cause of unipolar depression
two kinds of relationships
cultural background and depression: non-western countries more likely to report physical symptoms
a strong link between gender and depression: women cross-culturally are 2x more likely as men to receive a diagnosis of unipolar depression women also appear to by younger have more frequnt and longer lasting bouts and respond less successfully to treatment

symptoms of mania
five main areas of functioning: emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, physical

emotional symptoms for mania
active, powerful emotions in search of outled; disproportionate euphoria and joy, or anger and irritability

motivational symptoms for mania
need for constant excitement, involvement, companionship

behavioral symptoms for mania
very active, risky behaviors (spending, drug use, sex) quickened motor movements, and potential flamboyance

cognitive symptoms for mania
show poor judgement or planning, grandiosity (on top of the world)

physical symptoms
high energy level – often in the presence of little or no rest

manic episode
criteria A: period of one week or longer of abnormally and persistently elevated or irritable mood, and abnormally and persistently increase activity or energy
criteria B: three or more additional symptoms of mania (in extreme cases, pshychotic symptoms may occur)
criteria C: significant distress or impairment

bipolar I disorder
full manic and major depressive episodes
some experience an alternation of episodes
others have mixed episodes

bipolar II disorder
hypomanic episodes alternate with major depressive episodes
less episodes
less often diagnosed
harder to pin down

hypomanic
milder form of mania symptoms with noticeable change in functioning although without marked impairment

biological view on bipolar disorder
promissing research in; neurotransmitters, ion activity, brain activity, and genetic factors

neurotransmitters
biological view
bipolar disorders may be related to overactivity of norepinephrine
while high serotonin activity was suspected, research supports low serotonin levels
permissive theory about mood disorders

permissive theory
low serotonin may “open the door” to a mood disorder and permit norepinephrine activity to define the particular form the disorder will take
major depression: L serotonin L norepinephrine
bipolar disorder: L serotonin H norepinephrine

ion activity
some believe that irregularities in the transport of ions may cause neurons to fire too easily (mania) or too stubbornly resisting firing (depression)

brain activity
imaging and postmortem studies have identified a number of abnormal brain structures in people with bipolar disorder
ex: basal ganglia and cerebellum

genetic factors
belief that people inherit a biological predisposition to develop bipolar disorders
family pedigree studies

depression A low, sad state marked by significant levels of sadness, lack of energy, low self-worth, guilt, or related symptoms. mania A state or episode of euphoria or frenzied activity in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the …

Depression low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwheming Mania state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

a state of breathless euphoria, a frenzied energy, in which individuals have an exaggerated belief in their power describes: mania to be classified as having a major depressive episode, depression must last for a period of at least: two weeks …

What are mood disorders? They are gross deviations from normal mood, ranging from elation to severe depression What are the types of mood disorders? Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Pathological depression occurs when adaptation is ineffective. Hippocrates believed that melancholia (depression) was caused by an excess of black bile, a heavily toxic substance produced in the spleen or intestine, which affected the brain. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Prior to the DSM-III, conditions that are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred to by several different names, including all of the following EXCEPT depressive disorders, affective disorders, and depressive neuroses are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred …

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