Chapter 7: Principles of Pharmacology

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pharmacology
is the science of drugs, including their ingredients, preparation, uses, and actions on the body

true
(true/false) The term drugs may make some people think of narcotics or illegal substances. For this reason, you should use the word medications, especially when interviewing patients and families

medication
is a chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain

pharmacodynamics
is the process by which a medication works on the body

agonist
is a medication that causes the receptors to stimulate

antagonists
are medications that bind to a receptor and block other medications

dose
is the amount of the medication that is given (depends on the pt. weight or age, and desired action)

action
is the therapeutic effect or intended effect that a medication is expected to have on the body

intended effect
the effect that a medication is expected to have on the body

true
(true/false) Doses may also need to be decreased for elderly because they cannot process medications as efficiently as younger people.

indications
are the reasons or conditions for which a particular medication is given

angina
is a cardiac condition that nitroglycerin can be indicated to

contraindications
are when, even though the medication is indicated, the medication either harms the patient or has no positive effect on the patient’s condition

side effects
are any actions of a medication other than the desired ones

unintended effects
are the effects that are undesirable but pose little risk to the patient

untoward effects
are the effects that can be harmful to the patient

generic name
is the original chemical name of a medication; the name is not capitalized

trade name
is the brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized

prescription medications
are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician’s order

over the counter medications
may be purchased directly, such as from a discount store or supermarket, without a prescription

enteral medications
enter the body through the digestive system

parenteral medications
enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, the skin, or the mucous membranes

true
(true/false) Regardless of the route of administration of a medication, the end goal is to get that medication into the bloodstream.

absorption
is the process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream

per rectum (PR)
“by rectum” (A route of administration); this route is also used to give some medications when the patient cannot swallow or is unconscious

oral
medications taken by mouth, or per os (PO), and enter the bloodstream through the digestive system

per os (PO)
through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral

intravenous (IV, injection)
route of administration into the vein

intraosseous (IO, injection)
route of administration into the bone

subcutaneous (SC, injection)
route of administration beneath the skin

intramuscular (IM, injection)
route of administration into the muscle

inhalation
some medications are absorbed into the bloodstream through the lungs…

sublingual (SL)
route of administration under the tongue

transcutaneous (transdermal)
route of administration through the skin… from absorption (patches)

intranasal (IN)
a delivery route in which a a medication is pushed through a specialized atomizer device called mucosal atomizer device into the nare

mucosal atomizer device (MAD)
a device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and pushes it into a nostril

solution
is a liquid mixture of one or more substances that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand

suspension
a mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve

metered dose inhaler (MDI)
is a miniature spray canister used to direct such substances through the mouth and into the lungs; delivers the same amount of medication each time it is used

topical medications
are lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area

gel
is a semiliquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes

right patient
1st right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

right medication
2nd right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

right dose
3rd right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

right route
4th right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

right time
5th right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

right documentation
6th right of The “Six Rights” of Medication Administration

true
(true/false) Keep in mind, you may give these medications only according to standing orders in a protocol (off-line medical control) or a direct order (online medical control).

peer-assisted
you are administering medication to yourself or your partner

patient-assisted
you are assisting the patient with the administration of his or her own medication

EMT-administered
The EMT is directly administering the medication to the patient

adsorption
means to bind to or stick to a surface

activated charcoal
is ground into a very fine powder to provide the greatest possible surface area for binding

glucose
is a sugar that our cells use as fuel

oral glucose
can counteract the effects of hypoglycemia in the same way as a candy bar or sweet drink, but faster

Aspirin
is an antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory and inhibits platelet aggregation.

antipyretic
reduces fever

analgesic
reduces pain

anti-inflammatory
reduces inflammation

aggregation
clumping

nitroglycerin
A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication; many patients with cardiac conditions carry this to relieve pain from angina

epinephrine
a medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication

polypharmacy
the use of multiple medications on a regular basis

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy absorption the process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream action the therapeutic effect …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy angina pectoris spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia bronchodilator drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Absorption Process by which medications travel through body tissue Contradiction Situation in which a drug should not be given …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is pharmacology ? The broad scince of the orgin, mature, chemistry, effects and uses of drugs What is …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Excretion Action by which a drug leaves the body. Absorption The action by which the body takes in or …

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