Chapter 7 Marijuana

One of the distinctive characteristics of Cannabis Sativa is its

Marijuana is
none of the above

Marijuana is a
Schedule I drug

Marijuana produces effects that might qualify it to be considered a
all the above

The plant from which marijuana is derived was originally used for making
Rope and twine

The key psychoactive factor in Cannabis Sativa comes from
The resin that accumulates on the leaves

If there is a relatively large amount of fiber in a Cannabis plant, it is likely that the psychoactive effects
Will be low

cannabis plants having the highest resin content would most likely grow in the following climate
Hot and dry

THS is one of 80 or so
Compounds called cannabinoids

Present-day marijuana contains
Approximately 6-8 percent THC

The technical name for the cannabis product most familiar to North Americans is

The following cannabis products are rank ordered for THC concentration (highest to lowest)
hashish oil, hashish, sinsemilla, marijuana

Analogy: Marijuana is to hashish as _____
leaf is to resin.

Why does sinsemilla contain a high concentration of THC than marijuana?
The sinsemilla is bushier and the resin content is higher as a result.

The highest THC concentrations are achieved in the following cannabis product:
Hashish oil crystals.

Hashish oil is produced by
boiling hashish in alcohol then filtering out the residue.

In certain cannabis products, THC concentrations can be as high as
60 percent

Bhang is
both A and C
(a liquid form or cannabis and equivalent in potency to a marijuana cigarette)

In India, bhang has a THC concentration approximating

In Western Europe prior to about 1800, cannabis was
known only to a small proportion of the population.

One reason Western Europe was reintroduced to cannabis after 1800 was
the return of French soldiers from Egypt.

The club des Hachichins in Paris was
a gathering place for consuming hashish.

Hugo, Dumas, Baudelaire, and Balzac were among the prominent artists and intellectuals who regularly attended
the Club des Hachichins in paris.

By 1890, the hemp crop had been replaced by _____ as a major source of farm income in the U.S. South.

Compared to opium or cocaine, the prevalence of products containing marijuana among patent medicines in the nineteenth century was
much lower

According to the text, in the 1920’s, a large number of ____ were recreational marijuana users.
Jazz musicians

“tea pads” in the 1920’s referred to
places where marijuana smoking occured

According to the text, authorities largely ignored marijuana clubs in New York City during the 1920’s because:
Marijuana was not viewed as a social threat.

Some historians assert that marijuana would not have become so popular in the United States had it not been for

The description of marijuana as a “killer weed” dates back to
the late 1920’s and early 1930’s.

Leading the anti-marijuana crusade in the US during the 1930’s was
the Federal Bureau of Narcotics

A principal factor in the movement of US public opinion with respect to marijuana in the 1930’s was
the migration of Mexicans into the US

Analogy: Marijuana smoking is to opium smoking as
Mexican-Americans were to Chinese-Americans

The Marijuana Act of 1937
imposed a tax on marijuana use

The marijuana Tax Act of 1937 led to
all of the US states making possession of marijuana illegal.

In 1969, the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was found to be unconstitutional because
it violated the fifth amendment of the US Constitution

Prior to the 1960’s, the public believed that marijuana was abused by mostly
ethnic minorities in urban areas

By the mid-1960’s, marijuana smoking was suddenly
affecting a wide cross-section of the US

Maximizing THC absorption into the bloodstream requires
long, deep inhalations

Analogy: reeder is to join as
marijuana is to marihuana

Peak levels of THS in the blood occur about ___ after taking the drug.
10 minutes

Behavioral/psychological effects of marijuana last ____
2 to 4 hours

With regard to smoked marijuana,
absorption is fast; excretion is slow.

THC can be detected in the blood for several days after using marijuana due to
slow excretion of THC from fatty tissue.

Given the same dose af marijuana, who will report the greatest effect?
an experienced smoker

A drawback of urine testing for the presence of THC is
both A and B (the test cannot show exactly when exposure occurred and the test cannot determine if the person actually smoked marijuana)

Metabolites of marijuana are detectable several weeks after marijuana smoking if
there has been chronic marijuana smoking

If a drug test was conducted, which case could result in a positive reading?
all the above

the lethal dose/effective dose ratio for marijuana is roughly
20 to 40 thousand

Which of the following is a physiological effect of marijuana?
an increase in heart rate.

After using marijuana, a person’s blood pressure
depends on whether the person is sitting, standing, or lying down.

An example of a reaction to marijuana that is considered to be culturally-based, at least in part, is
sexual responsivity.

It is likely that whether marijuana smoking enhances sexual desire depends upon
all the above (dosage, expectations and cultural factors)

Currently, marijuana ranks ____ among drug-related ED visits

Marijuana is the only drug
that takes practice before effects are felt reliably.

A first time marijuana soker is likely to
feel no discernible effects at all

As with LSD, marijuana produces
changes in the sense of time.

Symptoms of the marijuana high include
all the above (feelings of euphoria, feelings of sleepiness, sharpened sense of sound)

A decline in memory recall is
a characteristic feature of marijuana smoking.

As the THC content in marijuana increases,
memory performance decreases

Concentration difficulties arising from marijuana use
all the above (impairs short-term memory, impairs long-term memory, cause fragmented, disjoined speech)

Driving ability is impaired after marijuana smoking because
it is more difficult to attend to peripheral stimuli.

Difficulties in handling sensory-motor tasks while engaged in marijuana smoking
continue even after the effects of marijuana are no longer felt.

Drivers testing positive for THC in their bloodstreams have been shown to be about ___ times more likely involved in an accident tan drivers testing negative for THC or alcohol.
three to seven

Among normal individuals, relatively low THC concentration are
not likely to cause acute emotional problems.

Which region has marijuana been linked to the greatest amount of psychiatric problems?
India and North Africa.

THC_sensitive receptors in teh brain are located in those regions that are important for
short-term memory and motor control

Given that marijuana does not depress respiration, one would expect an absence of THC_sensitive receptors in the

Anandamide is another name for
a naturally occurring THC

The naturally occurring substance that stimulates the THC-sensitive receptor in the brain is called

Animals will self-administer marijuana
but the behavior is not as compulsive as with other drugs

Self-administration of THC in animals is
less compulsive in character than with heroin.

Another term for reverse tolerance is

The “reverse tolerance” effect in marijuana smoking is
widely reported outside the laboratory but not supported in laboratory studies.

The consistency of tolerance effects for marijuana smoking inside of outside the laboratory depends upon
controlling for the THC content ingested

Physical withdrawal symptoms after smoking marijuana exist, when
the amount of marijuana smoked is moderate to high.

There is craving for marijuana to the same degree as there is craving for
none of the above

Acute effects of marijuana can worsen the following medical confition

Though THC produces a significant increase in heart rate, there is no conclusive evidence of cardiovascular problems among users who
under 35 years of age.

In comparison to tobacco, marijuana
contains more hydrocarbons

Which aspect of marijuana ingestion represents the risk factor for worsening symptoms of asthma?
the deep breathing process in marijuana smoking

Compared to marijuana, tobacco contains higher levels of all but which of the following?

Analogy: Tobacco cigarettes are to joints as
nicotine is to THC

Molecular abnormalities in the respiratory tracts of heavy marijuana smokers have been identified that resemble the changes found in the respiratory tracts of
cigarette smokers

The respiratory effects of a single marijuana joint is equivalent to up to ___ tobacco

Daily smoking of one marijuana joint is equivalent to how many cigarettes in terms of damage to cells lining the airways?
five cigarettes a day

Marijuana smoking does not increase the risk of developing _____ while tobacco does.

According to the text, one joint has approximately the same amount of tar as ____ cigarettes.

Which of the following statements is true?
there is a possibility that stopping marijuana smoking lowers the risk of cancer.

The extent to which marijuana smoking suppresses the human immune system in a significant way is

Marijuana has the following effects on the male reproductive system:
a decrease in sperm count

Marijuana has the following effects on the female reproductive system:
a reduction in the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion.

According to the text, smoking approximately _____ following ovulation can suppress levels of luteinizing hormone in women.
one marijuana joint

Marijuana has the following reproductive effect:
all the above (lower sperm count, lower level of LH secretion, lower level of testosterone)

Which of the following are characteristic of the amotivational syndrome?
loss of energy.

A decline in one’s grades after a period of regular marijuana smoking support
the amotivational syndrome

Which of the following is true?
research shows high school students who smoke marijuana miss more classes than other students.

It is doubtful that a decline in a marijuana smoker’s interest in academic matters
is pharmacological in nature.

Long-term marijuana smokers show cognitive impairment for up to _____ after marijuana smoking.
3 days.

Long term marijuana users show impairments involving ____. which are irreversible for long-term marijuana users even after abstaining from marijuana smoking for six months.
none of the above.

The idea that marijuana leads to abusing others drugs is known as ____
the gateway hypothesis

Which of the following is true, relative to non-marijuana smokers?
all the above (more likely to abuse heroin, abuse cocaine, and hallucinogens later in their lives)

The gateway hypothesis predicts that, relative to abstinence from marijuana,
that marijuana smoking will lead to a greater incidence of drug abuse in general.

A study conducted with twins, cited in the text, found that early marijuana users were
all the above (4x more likely to use cocaine, 5x more likely to use hallucinogens, and 2 1/2x more likely to use heroin later in life)

The sequential pattern of drug use among multi-drug (polydrug) users reveals that they initiate with the use of ____ drugs earlier than they initiate the use of ____ drugs
high-prevalence drugs; low-prevalence drugs

The idea that drug tolerance is a way of explaining the gateway hypothesis is referred to as the _____ school of though.

The idea that friends and acquaintances provide opportunities for drug experimentation is referred to as the _____ school of thought.

A gateway hypothesis with respect to marijuana seems to be equivalently applicable to a gateway hypothesis with respect to
alcohol and tobacco

There is greater support for a(n) ___ argument than a(n) ___ argument for the data regarding the gateway hyporthsis for marijuana.

Which of the following assertions of chronic marijuana abuse is true?
marijuana smoking in adolescence will generally be preceded by experimentation with tobacco and alcohol.

According to the text, marijuana use among adolescent males increases the risk of _____ late in adolescence.
all the above (not using condoms during sex, having multiple sexual partners, having problems with cigarettes and alcohol)

In general, marijuana smokers
are more likely to be risk-takers

The dominant illicit drug in the U.S society today is

Six out of ten illicit drug users in the United States use
marijuana alone

According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2007, it was found that ____ of the U.S population over the age of 12 have used marijuana at least once in their lives.
40 percent

The percentage of current illicit drug users who smoke marijuana is approximately
75 percent

Among forty-five-year-ld Americans who have attained at least a high school education, approximately ____ percent have tried marijuana at least once in their lives.

Prevalence rates for high school seniors smoking marijuana in the past year or in the past month in 2007
were significantly higher than those surveyed in 1990 and 1991

While marijuana smoking prevalence rates have increased since 1990 and 1991, the prevalence rates are stil lower than those reported in
the late 1970’s

A lower number of high school seniors in 2007, relative to 1991, indicated
a general attitude that regular marijuana smoking was harmful to them.

The typical THC concentration in marijuana joint available today is about
6 percent

Psychedelic-era marijuana joints are to _____ as present marijuana joints are to
1 to 2 percent THC; 6 percent THC

THC concentrations in some strains of sinsemilla may be as high as
15 percent

can produce synergistic or other interactive effects in any street frug

To increase profits, Bob, the neighborhood drug dealer, decides to mix marijuana with some newly introduced drugs which will weaken the effects of marijuana. This practice is known as

According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, more than 50 percent of marijuana users in 2005 between the age of twelve and seventeen employed _____ in marijuana smoking.

The ability to reduce intraocular pressure results in a medical application of marijuana for the following disorder:

Marijuana has been effective in treating all but which of the following conditions?

THC has been found to be
as effective as other treatments for glaucoma or asthma

Marijuana has been used to help alleviate symptoms associated with
all the above (treatment of AIDS, cancer through chemotherapy, and Crohn’s disease)

Chemotherapy in the course of cancer treatment frequently produces
a loss of appetite

An important application of THC has been as one of the following:
antiemetic drug

Two legal prescription drugs containing THC or variations of it are
dronabinol and nabilone

Marijuana and other cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs
despite the possible medical uses

A report issued by the Institute of Medicine stated that
short term us of marijuana is suitable for treating certain conditions that do not respond well to traditional medications.

The 2005 decisions by the US Supreme Court to ban the use of medical marijuana on the federal level was due to
the court’s assertion that it was within their right to regulate interstate commerce

The 2005 US Supreme Court case, Raich v Ashcroft
overturn the legal status of medical marijuana in the state of California.

In the 2005, US Supreme Court Case Raich v ashcroft, Angel McClary Raich
testified as a patient who would benefit from the use of medical marijuana.

In 1996 Compassionate Use Act
legalized the use of marijuana for medical reasons within California

Medical marijuana has been legal in Canada since

Which of the following has NOT encouraged a shift toward marijuana decriminalization int he United States?
forty-one out of the fifty US States.

Decriminalization of marijuana
considers marijuana possession to be a civil rather than a criminal offense.

Decriminalization of possession of marijuana typically applies to
amounts less than one ounce or so

Studies show that decriminalization in marijuana in those US states that have enacted such legislation has resulted in
little or no difference in the incidence of marijuana smoking.

In a study of arrests made in New York City from 1998 to 2007, 90 percent of arrests for marijuana possession involved

Introduction Marijuana cigarettes are prepared from the leaves and flowering tops of Cannabis sativa (Figure 1), a plant that is originally cultivated for its hemp fiber that could used to make rope (Van Hooze & Cross, 1997). The preparation is …

Marijuana has been one of the most researched drugs in the history of pharmacology, and there is still considerable disagreement about its short-term and long-term effects. It was made an illicit drug in the United States, and many states have …

Cannabis may well be the most hotly debated drug some advocating for its legalization, others maintaining that it is a gateway to the so-called hard drugs. Using the text and additional materials, argue the case for marijuana being a dangerous …

The strongest and the most publicly accepted form of marijuana smoking is for medical reasons. Marijuana has the power to improve appetites in chemotherapy patients and AIDS patients and may reduce muscle spasms associated with epilepsy and multiple sclerosis, and …

Health Effects of Marijuana Although activists of marijuana have always argued that marijuana do not have nay proven negative effects medical practitioners have always argued to the contrary. According to doctors one developed health problems immediately one begins to use …

Illegal drug use is a huge part of American culture and one the most controversial of those drugs is marijuana; its technical name is Cannabis Sativa. But whether you call it cannabis, marijuana, pot, reefer, weed, bud, herb, Mary Jane, …

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