Chapter 6: Disorders of Mood

Depression
low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwheming

Mania
state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy

Unipolar depression
no history of mania, mood returns to normal when depression lifts

Five Areas of Functioning (symptoms of depression)
Emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, physical

Emotion symptoms of depression
feeling miserable, empty, humiliated, little pleasure

Motivational symptoms of depression
lacking drive, initiative, humiliated, tightly linked to suicide

Behavioral symptoms of depression
less active, less productive

Cognitive symptoms of depression
hold negative view of themselves, blame themselves, pessimistic, treatment is focused on these symptoms

Physical symptoms of depression
headaches, dizzy spells, general pain

Major depressive episode
Period of two or more weeks marked by five or more persistant, ongoing symptoms of depression

Major depressive disorder
experience a major depressive episode with no history of mania

Dysthymic Disorder
individuals experience a longer-lasting (at least two years) but less disabling pattern of depression

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
diagnosis given to women who repeatedly experience clinically significant depressive symptoms during the week before menstruation

Disruptive mood regulation disorder
characterized by a combination or persistant depressive symptoms and recurrent outbursts of severe temper **no studies done, possibly made up**

Stress and unipolar depression
Stress may be a trigger for depression

Biological model of unipolar depression
biochemical factors, brain anatomy and brain circuits, immune system

Biochemical factors of depression
NT:serotonin and norepinephrine, Endocrine system/hormone release

Brain anatomy factors of depression
brain has networks, circuit for depression has begun to emerge

Immune system factors of depression
not fighting foreign infection like it should

Biological treatment for depression
ECT, antidepressants, brain stimulation

ECT
last resort, causes brain seizure, can cause short term memory loss, unknown how it works

Antidepressants
MAO, Tricyclics, second generation antidepressants

MAOI
originally used to treat TB, slows down production of MAO which breaks down norepinephrine, allows more norepinephrine in the body, potentially dangerous

Tricyclics
affect neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms, relapse possible

Second-generation antidepressants
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, prozac, zoloft, lexapro; fewer side effects

Brain Stimulation
Vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation

Original Psychodynamic model of depression
regress back to oral stage of development, then merging of identities

Newer psychodyamic model of depression
depression results when people’s relationships leave them feeling unsafe and insecure, look to internal aspects of the person

Psychodynamic treatment
only occasionally help, but clients may be too passive or end treatment too early, free association, focus on past and patient

Behavior model of depression
depression results from changes in rewards and punishments people receive, perform fewer constructive behaviors, social rewards especially important

Behavioral treatment for depression
reintroduce patient to pleasurable activities, appropriately reinforce behaviors, teach social skills

Limitations of behavioral treatment for depression
patient may not have the motivation or will to do pleasurable things

Cognitive model of depression
Learned helplessness, negative thinking

Learned Helplessness
Asserts that people become depressed when they think they no longer have control over reinforcements in their lives and they themselves are responsible for this helpless state, significant research for this model, focuses on attributions-internal vs external, Global vs stable

Negative thinking
4 components: maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad, errors in thinking, automatic thoughts; has research support

Maladaptive attitudes
self-defeating attitudes

Cognitive triad
view their experiences, themselves and future as negtive

Errors in thinking
minimization of the positive, magnification of the negative; arbitrary inferences

Automatic thoughts
A steady train of unpleasant thoughts that suggest inadequacy

Cognitive therapy
Increasing activities and elevating mood, challenging automatic thoughts, identify negative thinking and bias

Family-social perspective of depression
declining social rewards, people who are isolated and without intimacy are particularly likely to become depressed

Multicultural perspective of depression
Every culture is affected; in non-western countries are more likely to have physical symptoms

Multicultural treatment of depression
Seek to address the unique issues faced by members of cultural minority groups, combined with traditional forms of therapy

Bipolar disorder
experience both lows of depression and highs of mania

Symptoms of Mania
Emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, physical

Emotional symptoms of mania
Active, powerful emotions in search of outlet

Motivational symptoms of mania
Need for constant excitement, involvement, companionship

Behavioral symptoms of mania
very active, move quickly, talk loudly or rapidly, flamboyance, promiscuousness

Cognitive symptoms of mania
show poor judgment or planning, trouble remaining coherent or in touch with reality

Physical symptoms of mania
high energy level, little or no rest

Full manic episode(Bipolar I)
At least one week of abnormal high mood, high energy and 3 other symptoms

Bipolar II
less severe symptoms, hypomanic episode, still major depressive episodes

Symptoms of Bipolar disorder
inflated self-esteem, gradiosity, need for sleep, hyper-talkative, obsessively goal oriented, excessive pleasurable involvments

Bipolar disorder is NOT
frequent mood swings, moods that change moment to moment, unpredictable shifts in mood, being easily angered, annoyed or irritated

Bipolar Disorder without treatment
Episodes recur for people, 4 or more times per year is rapid cycling, normal=3 episodes per year

Bipolar disorder gender occurance
Equal in both men and women

Onset of Bipolar disorder
Ages 18-25

Cyclothymic Disorder
numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depression, symptoms for two or more years, may not even exist, just poor emotion regulation

Causes of Bipolar disorder
Lots of biological research; NT: relationship between low norepinephrine and unipolar depression, Bipolar disorder linked to low serotonin

Permissive Theory for Bipolar disorder
Low serotonin + low norepinephrine = depression
Low serotonin + high norepinephrine = mania

Ion Activity theory for bipolar disorder
Improper transportation through cells; firing too easily=manic; less firing= depression

Brain structure theory for bipolar disorder
abnormal brain structures, not clear what role; what came first?

Genetic theory for bipolar disorder
inherit a biological predisposition; ex. twins

Treatments for bipolar disorder
Lithium and mood stabilizers, adjunctive psychotherapy

Lithium and other mood stabilizers
improve symptoms, mania is target of medication, maybe work through synaptic activity in neuron’s second messenger

Adjunctive Pyschotherapy for bipolar disorder
Rarely helpful alone, combined with medication; focuses on medication management, relationships, social skills (NOT therapy)

depression and mania two key emotions in mood disorders depression feeling low, down, or depressed with reduced energy, self-worth, guilt, and hoplessness often used to describe general sadness or unhappiness WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

depression A low, sad state marked by significant levels of sadness, lack of energy, low self-worth, guilt, or related symptoms. mania A state or episode of euphoria or frenzied activity in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the …

a state of breathless euphoria, a frenzied energy, in which individuals have an exaggerated belief in their power describes: mania to be classified as having a major depressive episode, depression must last for a period of at least: two weeks …

What are mood disorders? They are gross deviations from normal mood, ranging from elation to severe depression What are the types of mood disorders? Depressive disorders and bipolar disorders WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Pathological depression occurs when adaptation is ineffective. Hippocrates believed that melancholia (depression) was caused by an excess of black bile, a heavily toxic substance produced in the spleen or intestine, which affected the brain. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Prior to the DSM-III, conditions that are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred to by several different names, including all of the following EXCEPT depressive disorders, affective disorders, and depressive neuroses are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred …

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