biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms include
A. hormones
B. neurotransmitters
C. earwax
D. gastric acid
C

when an aide asks the nurse what is a purpose of the inflammatory process, how should the nurse respond
A. to provide specific responses toward antigens
B. to lyse cell membranes of microorganisms
C. to prevent infection of the injured tissue
D. to create immunity against subsequent tissue injury
C

a child fell of the swing and scraped the right knee. the injured area becomes painful. what else will the nurse observe upon assessment
A. vasoconstriction at injured site
B. decreased RBC concentration at injured site
C. pale skin at injured site
D. edema at injured site
D

a nurse recalls the mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of
A. chemotaxis
B. endocytosis
C. degranulation
D. opsonizaiton
C

which of the following individuals would be at greatest risk for an opportunistic infection
A. 18 year old with diabetes
B. 70 year old with congestive heart failure
C. 24 year old who is immunocompromised
D. 30 year old with pneumonia
c

the directional migration of leukocytes along a chemical gradient is termed
A. chemotaxis
B. endocytosis
C. margination
D. diapedesis
A

a 25 year old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. the pain associated with the injury is related to
A. histamine and serotonin
B. kinins and prostaglandins
C. vasoconstriction
D. immune complex formation
B

which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding the classic pathway of the complement system. the classic pathway of the complement system is activated by
A. histamine
b. anigen-antibody complexes
C. leukotrienes
D. prostaglandins
B

a patient has researched bradykinin on the internet. which informaiton indicates the patient understands the function of bradykin. bradykinin is involved in
A. increasing vascular permeability
B. vasocontrciting blood vessels
C. stimulating the clotting system
d. increasing degradation of prostaglandins
A

after teaching the staff about the clotting system, which statement indicates teaching was successful? the end product of the clotting system is
A. plasmin
B. fibrin
C. collagen
D. factor x
B

a nurse is preparing to teach on the subjects of opsonins. which information should the nurse include? opsonins are molecules that
A. are composed of fatty acids
B. regulate inflammation
C. degranulate mast cells
D. enhance phagocytosis
D

a 10 year old male is diagnosed with a parasite. which lab result should the nurse check for a response to the parasite
A. monocyte
B. eosiniphils
C. neutrophils
D. macrophages
B

when phagocytes begin to stick avidly to capillary walls, which process is occuring
A. margination
B. exudation
C. integration
D. emigration
A

an infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. which of the following most likely triggered the fever
A. interleukin 1
B. interleukin 6
C. interleukin 10
D. interferons
A

a 12 year old male is fighting with another child when he receives a puncture wound from a pencil. the school nurse cleans and bandages the wound. after about 1 week, the wound would be in which phase of healing
A. debridement
B. primary intention
C. resolution
D. maturation
C

the nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. which would the nurse classify as a local response. select all that apply
A. fever
B. redness
C. swelling
D. heat
E. pain
B
C
D
E

which of the following are released by mast cell degraulation
A. histamine
B. neutrophil chemotactic factor
C. eosinophil chemotactic factor
D. all of the above
D

which of the following surpasses lymphocyte production and down regulates the inflammatory and immune response
A. interleukin 1
B. interleukin 6
C. interleukin 10
D. tumor necrosis factor alpha
C

which of the following consists of a water exudate and indicates early inflammation
A. serous exudate
b. purulent exudate
C. fibrinous exudate
D. purulent exudate
A

giant cell formation is a manifestation of
A. viral infection
B. acute inflammation
C. chronic inflammation
D. dysfucntional wound healing
C

which of the following statements regarding inflammation is FALSE
A. inflammation prevents and/or limits infection and further damage through activation of plasma protein systems and edema to dilute toxins
B. inflammation prepares the area of injury for healing by moving debris, dead cells and initiating mechanisms of healing
C. the three plasms protein system involved in inflammation include the kinin system, clotting system, and complement system
D. the inflammatory response is very pathogen specific and is therefore considered a component of the adaptive immune system
D

the movement of leukocytes out of an intact blood vessel is called
A. margination
B. diapedesis
C. chemotaxis
D. none of the above
B

FP’s or fibrinopeptides, produced during the activation of the clotting system, will have which of the following effects
a. enhance the inflammatory response
B. suppress the inflammatory response
C. protect healthy cells from viral invasion
D. form the membrane attack complex and lyse foreign cells
A

the late response of mast cells involves the synthesis of 3 types of chemicals using arachidonic acid from the mast cell plasma membrane. which of the following are synthesized by mast cells during this late response
A. SRSA
B. PAF
C. prostaglandins
D. all of the above
D

open wounds that require a great deal of tissue replacement and do not regain their original tensile strength heal by
A. primary intention
B. secondary intention
C. the process of dehiscence
D. luck
B

Normal bacterial flora in the GI tract would be considered an example of
A. first line of defense
B. second line of defense
C. third line of defense
A

The activation of the complement system can result in
A. Leukocyte chemotaxis
B. membrane attack complex
C. opsonization
D. mast cell degranulation
E. all of the above
E

The thin watery exudate that indicates early inflammation is called
A. fibrinous exudate
B. purulent exudate
C. serous exudate
D. hemorrhagic exudate
C

the role of histamine in an inflammatory response is
A. opsonization and increased phagocytosis
B. irritate nerve endings to induce pain and force rest
C. chemotaxis of leukocytes to the damaged tissue
D. vasodilation of post capillary venues and increased capillary permeability
E. complement fixation and cytolysis
D

which of the following are released by mast cell degranulation
A. histamine
B. neutrophil chemotactic factor
C. eosinophil chemotactic factor
D. all of the above
D

which of the following consists of a water exudate and indicates early inflammation
A. serous exudate
B. purulent exudate
C. fibrinous exudate
D. purulent exudate
A

Mast cell degranulation in an inflammatory response releases
A. chemotactic factors
B. prostaglandins
C. histamine
D. platelet activating factor
E. all of the above
E

granuloma and giant cell formation are indicative of
A. chronic inflammation
B. acute parasitic infection
C. resolution
D. none of the above
A

Returning injured tissue to its original structure and function is called
A. resolution
B. repair
C. fibrosis
D. Dehiscence
A

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