Chapter 5

A hypothetical cell that responds to only one specific visual stimulus is referred to as a ____.
feature detector

To construct a three-dimensional image, we ____.
use monocular and binocular cues

How does the brain process visual information?
Visual information from the retina travels to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe.

As people age, what alters their perception of color?
The lens begins to turn yellow.

Bottom-up processing involves the ____.
brain’s use of incoming signals to construct perceptions

The movement of hair cells in the vestibular system results in the production of signals in the auditory nerve. Where do the axons of the auditory nerve then form connections?
medulla and cerebellum

Kathy, a neuroscience graduate student, is running the final experiments for her thesis, The Effects of Loud Noise on Auditory Perception. Kathy stimulates the auditory nerve of rodents exposed to loud noise and records the activity of neurons in the primary and secondary cortices. Through which brain pathway is sound input processed prior to arriving at the primary and secondary cortices?
medulla – midbrain – thalamus

Of the following, who is likely to have the most rods activated in the retina?
Yasmeen, who is searching for her keys under the bed

How do sensory systems differ for humans versus non-human animals?
Developed out of natural selection, sensory systems are unique to an individual species (human or non-human) and work to maximize the survival of that species.

Top-down processing involves the ____.
brain imposing its own structure on incoming information

Our perception of color is best described by which of the following processes?
A comparison of the responses of the red, green, and blue cones to light

The clear surface at the front of the eye that begins the process of directing light to the retina is the ____
cornea

Why is the binocular depth system advantageous for predators?
It helps an animal stand out against its background, even when it is well camouflaged.

What were the results of a study that tracked the eye movements of American and Chinese college students as they scanned photographs?
The Americans were more likely to focus on the figure; the Chinese gave approximately equal viewing time to figure and background

Saul is a cytotechnologist in training. He is asked to screen a series of tissue samples for pre-cancerous cells. His supervisor checks his work and determines that Saul greatly overestimated the number of samples containing pre-cancerous cells. This illustrates ____.
false alarms

An important gateway to perception is the process of ____, defined as a narrow focus of consciousness.
attention

Hugo is running an experiment to determine if a specific DNA allele is present in a new transgenic mouse line. He glances through numerous data sets and identifies the correct DNA “band” in the majority of his experiments. This illustrates the concept of a ____.
hit

While working to restore the roof of his house, Stan feels the rough surfaces of the roof’s shingles. What allows Stan to sense the roughness of the shingles?
Specialized neurons in the skin generate action potentials when distorted by the rough surface.

How does our perception of sound change with intensity of the stimulus?
Our sound perception changes at a smaller rate.

In our everyday life, we sense and accordingly react to changes in our environment. Sensory information is sent to the central nervous system by the neurons, when an external stimulus is detected. The sensory information is processed based on which …

Arachnoid matter middle meninges that encloses CSF and protects the central nervous system. Cerebellum the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

2 major categories of human nervous system Central Nervous System – CNS Peripheral Nervous System – PNS 2 components of the central nervous system Brain Spinal cord WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Define PNS and list its components Peripherial Nervous System – Sensory(afferent) Division and Motor (efferent) division Motor division – Somatic NS & Autonomic NS ANS – Parasympathetic and sympathetic Differentiate among a stimulus, a sensation and perception. Stimulus – Changes …

Blood-brain barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep others out. Astrocyte Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Cerebral Cortex The outermost layer of the brain -Controls high-level thinking mental process such as thought What sides of the brain control what sides of the body? Right side of brain –> left side of body Left side of brain …

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