Chapter 33: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939

new deal
term used by FDR in the 1932 acceptance speech that came to describe his whole reform program

brain-tired
FDR’s reform-minded intellectual advisers, who conceived much of the New Deal legislation

100 Days
popular term for the special session of Congress in early 1933 that passed vast quantities of Roosevelt-initiated legislation

CCC
the early New Deal agency that worked to solve the problems of unemployment and conservation by employing youth in reforestation and other socially beneficial tasks

WPA
large federal employment program, established in 1935 under Harry Hopkins, that provided jobs in areas from road building to art

blue eagle
widely displayed symbol of the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which attempted to reorganize and reform U.S. industry

AAA
New Deal farm agency that attempted to raise prices by paying farmers to reduce their production of crops and animals

Dust Bowl
the drought-stricken plains areas from which hundreds of thousands of “Okies” were driven during the Great Depression

TVA
New Deal agency that aroused strong conservative criticism by producing low-cost electrical power in competition with private utilities

Social Security Act
New Deal program that financed old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and other forms of income assistance

Committee for Industrial Organization
The new union group that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board

SEC
New Deal agency established to provide a public watchdog against deception and fraud in stock trading

American Liberty League
organization of wealthy Republicans and conservative Democrats whose attacks on the NEw Deal caused Roosevelt to denounce them as “economic royalists” in the campaign of 1936

Court packing plan
Roosevelt’s scheme for gaining Supreme Court approval of New Deal legislation

Hatch Act
law of 1939 that prevented federal officials from engaging in campaign activities or using federal relief funds for political purposes

Franklin D. Roosevelt
former New York governor who roused the nation to action against the depression with his appeal to the “forgotten man”

Eleanor Roosevelt
presidential wife who became an effective lobbyist for the poor during the New Deal

Banking holiday
Roosevelt-declared closing of all U.S. financial institutions on March 6-10, 1933, in order to stop panic and prepare reforms

Harry Hopkins
former New York social worker who became an influential FDR adviser and head of several New Deal agencies

Father Coughlin
the “microphone messiah” of Michigan whose mass radio appeals turned anti-New Deal and anti-Semitic

Huey (“Kingfish”) Long
Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make “every man a king” at the expense of the wealthy

Schechter case
Supreme Court ruling of 1935 that struck down a major New Deal industry-and-labor agency

Harold Ickes
former bull moose progressive who spent billions of dollars on public building projects while carefully guarding against waste

John Steinbeck
writer whose best-selling novel portrayed the suffering of dust bowl “Okies” in the Thirties

John L. Lewis
domineering boss of the mine workers’ union who launched the CIO

Frances Perkins
Roosevelt’s secretary of labor, America’s first female cabinet member

Alfred M. Landon
republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against “The Champ” in 1936

Ruth Benedict
prominent 1930s social scientist who argued that each culture produced its own type of personality

John Maynard Keynes
British economist whose theories helped justify New Deal deficit spending

Justice Roberts
Supreme Court justice whose “switch in time” to support New Deal legislation help undercut FDR’s Court-packing scheme

The “lame-duck” period from November 1932 to March 1933
caused a political paralysis that nearly halted the U.S. economy

Roosevelt’s leadership during the Hundred Days
pushed a remarkable number of laws through Congress and restored the nation’s confidence

The Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, and the Civil Works Administration
provided federal jobs for unemployed workers in conservation, construction, the arts, and other areas

New Deal farm programs like the AAA
succeeded in raising farm prices but met strong opposition from many conservatives

The Tennessee Valley Authority
provided federal economic planning, conservation, cheap electricity, and jobs to a poverty-stricken region

The Wagner (National Labor Relations) Act
encouraged the CIO to organize large numbers of unskilled workers

FDR’s political appeals to workers, African Americans, southerners, and “New Immigrants”
forged a powerful political coalition that made the Democrats the majority party

The Supreme Court’s conservative rulings against New Deal legislation
caused Roosevelt to propose a plan to “pack” the Supreme Court

Roosevelt’s attempt to “pack” the Supreme Court
may have pushed the Court toward more liberal rulings but badly hurt FDR politically

The rapid cutback in federal “pump-priming” spending in 1937
caused a sharp “Roosevelt Depression” that brought unemployment back up to catastrophic levels

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Roaring Economy to Great Depression It made the economy weaker. What effect did the use of credit have on the economy in the 1920s? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

A significan cause of the Great Depression of the 1930’s was that some banking policies were unsound and had led to the over expansion of credit An important factor contributing to the start of the Great Depression in the US …

Franklin D Roosevelt He beat Herbert Hoover in the general election and became the 32nd President of the United States. He was a democrat and cousin to previous president Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt She was the niece of Theodore Roosevelt. …

Great Depression the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s stock market an exchange where security trading is conducted by professional stockbrokers WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

On margin Buying with a small down payment and borrowing the rest of the money Hoovervilles Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that the …

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