Chapter 33 Principles of Pharmacology Study Guide

Angina Pectoris
A spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia.

Bronchodilator
a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs

Cirrhosis
a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver

Hypercholesterolemia
An excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood

Metabolic Alkalosis
a condition characterized by an excess of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body; the pH rises to greater than 7.45

Spermicide
an agent used to kill sperm

Therapeutic Range
Blood concentration of a drug that produces the desired effect without toxicity

Benefit-to-Risk Ratio
it is effective without causing an unacceptable level of harm to the user

Controlled Substance Act
Drugs are classified according to their medical use, potential for abuse, and possibility of creating dependence.

Physical Drug Dependency
A person’s addiction to use a substance continuously, so the body can function and to prevent physical discomfort.

Habituation
Mild form of psychological dependency; such as the need for caffiene.

Chemical name
chemical formula for a drug

Trade name
brand or proprietary name

PDR
physician’s desk reference

USP
United States Pharmacopoeia

Systemic effect
reaches widespread areas of the body

Subscription
Directions to the pharmacist to include the size of each dose, form, and number to dispense

Inscription
Name of the drug prescribed, dosage, form, and strength.

Signature
Directions on how and when to take medication prescribed.

Superscription
The date, patient’s name, address, and the Rx symbol

Antagonism
The action of one drug diminishes the effect or shortens the duration of action of another drug.

Synergism
combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone

Potentiation
The combination of two drugs sometimes causing an effect that is greater than the individual drugs alone

sublingual
under the tongue

Intrathecal injection
Intraspinal injections used for administering corticosteroids into joints.

Diurnal rhythms
A pattern of activity or behavior that follows a day/night cycle.

Prophylactic
Drug that prevents or slows the course of an illness or disease.

Therapeutic
Drugs used to treat and cure a disorder; for example, antibiotics cure bacterial infections.

Replacement
Drugs that provide substances the body needs to maintain health.

Palliative
Drugs that do not cure a disorder but relieve pain or symptoms related to the condition.

Diagnostic
Drugs that help determine the cause of a particular health problem.

Parenteral
Denoting any medication route other than the GI route.

Colloidal
Pertaining to a glue-like substance.

Generic
Drugs that are not protected by trademark.

Enteric-coated
Drug formulation in which tablets are coated with a special compound that does not dissolve until the tablet is exposed to the fluids of the small intestine.

Over the counter
Medications sold without prescription

Lumen
Space within a vessel or tube.

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